Optimal Scheduling of Air Separation with Cryogenic Energy Storage

Qi Zhang, Clara F. Heuberger, Ignacio E. Grossmann, Arul Sundaramoorthy, Jose M. Pinto

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

6 Scopus citations


The idea of cryogenic energy storage (CES), which is to store energy in the form of liquefied gas, has gained increased interest in recent years. Although CES at an industrial scale is a relatively new approach, the technology used for CES is well-known and essentially part of any cryogenic air separation unit (ASU). In this work, we assess the operational benefits of adding CES to an existing air separation plant. Three potential new opportunities are investigated: (1) increasing the plant's flexibility for load shifting, (2) storing purchased energy and selling it back to the market during higher-price periods, (3) creating additional revenue by providing operating reserve capacity. We develop a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) scheduling model for an ASU- CES plant and apply a robust optimization approach to model the uncertainty in reserve demand. Results from an industrial case study show that the amount of wasted products can be considerably reduced and significant cost savings can be achieved by utilizing the CES.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationComputer Aided Chemical Engineering
PublisherElsevier B.V.
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameComputer Aided Chemical Engineering
ISSN (Print)1570-7946

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier B.V.


  • Cryogenic energy storage
  • Demand side management
  • Robust optimization


Dive into the research topics of 'Optimal Scheduling of Air Separation with Cryogenic Energy Storage'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this