Twenty-six LD students were observed over two entire school days to examine the extent to which instructional approaches and opportunities to learn varied according to service delivery level. Although instructional approaches varied, no differences were found in students' opportunities to learn through active academic responding. Thus, academic responding time was low for all students, averaging less than 45 minutes per day. Furthermore, variability among students was great, even within one service delivery level. Relationships among student response times and achievement gains generally confirmed the positive relationship between active academic responding and achievement and the negative relationship between inappropriate responding and achievement. Implications of the findings for LD service provision are explored.
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