One year outcome of boys with duchenne muscular dystrophy using the bayley-III scales of infant and toddler development

Anne M. Connolly, Julaine M. Florence, Mary M. Cradock, Michelle Eagle, Kevin M. Flanigan, Craig M. McDonald, Peter I. Karachunski, Basil T. Darras, Kate Bushby, Elizabeth C. Malkus, Paul T. Golumbek, Craig M. Zaidman, J. Philip Miller, Jerry R. Mendell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Background The pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy starts before birth. Despite this, clinical trials exclude young boys because traditional outcome measures rely on cooperation. We recently used the Bayley-III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development to study 24 infants and boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Clinical evaluators at six centers were trained and certified to perform the Bayley-III. Here, we report 6- and 12-month follow-up of two subsets of these boys. Patients Nineteen boys (1.9 ± 0.8 years) were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Twelve boys (1.5 ± 0.8 years) were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Results Gross motor scores were lower at baseline compared with published controls (6.2 ± 1.7; normal 10 ± 3; P < 0.0001) and revealed a further declining trend to 5.7 ± 1.7 (P = 0.20) at 6 months. Repeated measures analysis of the 12 boys monitored for 12 months revealed that gross motor scores, again low at baseline (6.6 ± 1.7; P < 0.0001), declined at 6 months (5.9 ± 1.8) and further at 12 months (5.3 ± 2.0) (P = 0.11). Cognitive and language scores were lower at baseline compared with normal children (range, P = 0.002-<0.0001) and did not change significantly at 6 or 12 months (range, P = 0.89-0.09). Fine motor skills, also low at baseline, improved >1 year (P = 0.05). Conclusion Development can reliably be measured in infants and young boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy across time using the Bayley-III. Power calculations using these data reveal that motor development may be used as an outcome measure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)557-563
Number of pages7
JournalPediatric Neurology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was funded by the Muscular Dystrophy Association DMD-center grants to A.M.C., J.D.M., C.M.M., J.W.D., and B.T.D. This publication was also made possible by grant no. UL1 RR024992 from the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) , a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of NCRR or NIH.


  • Bayley-III
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  • clinical trial outcomes
  • infant development


Dive into the research topics of 'One year outcome of boys with duchenne muscular dystrophy using the bayley-III scales of infant and toddler development'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this