Onboard device encapsulation with two-phase cooling

S. J. Young, D. Janssen, E. A. Wenzel, B. M. Shadakofsky, F. A. Kulacki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Onboard liquid cooling of electronic devices is demonstrated with liquid delivered externally to the point of heat removal through a conformal encapsulation. The encapsulation creates a flat microgap above the integrated circuit (IC) and delivers a uniform inlet coolant flow over the device. The coolant is NovecTM 7200, and the electronics are simulated with a resistance heater on a 1:1 scale. Thermal performance is demonstrated at power densities of ~1 kW/cm3 in the microgap. Parameters investigated are pressure drop, average device temperature, heat transfer coefficient, and coefficient of performance (COP). Nusselt numbers for gap sizes of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75mm are reduced to a dimensionless correlation. With low coolant inlet subcooling, two-phase heat transfer is seen at all mass flows. Device temperatures reach 95 ° C for power dissipation of 50-80W (0.67-1.08 kW/cm3) depending on coolant flow for a gap of 0.5 mm. Coefficients of performance of ~100 to 70,000 are determined via measured pressure drop and demonstrate a low pumping penalty at the device level within the range of power and coolant flow considered. The encapsulation with microgap flow boiling provides a means for use of higher power central processing unit and graphics processing unit devices and thereby enables higher computing performance, for example, in embedded airborne computers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number021002
JournalJournal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 by ASME.


  • Direct liquid cooling
  • Flow boiling
  • Microgap
  • Onboard encapsulation
  • Thermal management


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