On the use of torque-biasing systems for electronic stability control: Limitations and possibilities

Damrongrit Piyabongkarn, Jae Y. Lew, Rajesh Rajamani, John A. Grogg, Qinghui Yuan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations


This brief paper focuses on the concept of utilizing torque-biasing systems on a four-wheel drive vehicle for improving vehicle stability and handling performance. In contrast to brake-based yaw stability control systems, torque biasing has the potential to provide yaw stability control without slowing down the longitudinal response of the vehicle. An inexpensive system configuration is considered in which the driveline is based on front-wheel drive with on-demand transfer of torque to the rear. The torque-biasing components of the system are an electronically controlled center coupler and a rear electronically controlled limited slip differential. First, modeling of the torque-biasing devices is briefly introduced. Then, a hierarchical control architecture is presented in which an upper controller determines desired yaw moment for achieving yaw rate and slip angle control. The lower controller attempts to achieve the desired yaw moment using torque biasing. Theoretical analysis shows that transfer of longitudinal tire forces can effectively be used to achieve any desired yaw moment for the vehicle. However, the use of torque biasing cannot always achieve the desired transfer of longitudinal tire forces. Simulations show that the proposed control system can always effectively provide understeering yaw moments but can provide oversteering torque moments only during on-throttle maneuvers. Experimental data show that significant stability improvements are obtained using the proposed system for low-friction slalom maneuvers and a T-junction launch maneuver. The results presented in this brief shed important light on the possibilities and limitations of using torque biasing for vehicle yaw stability control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)581-589
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2007


  • Center coupler
  • Limited slip differential
  • Torque biasing
  • Vehicle stability control


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