On the acidity and salinity of rain

Eville Gorham

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Analyses of pH, Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, and PO4 are recorded for forty-two rain samples collected in the English Lake District between 14 May and 23 October 1954. NaCl was often an important constituent, and the main source of Na, Mg, and Cl appeared to be sea-spray. SO4 was clearly correlated with soot, and free H4SO4 frequently accounted for an appreciable proportion of total ions. Ca, K, and SO4 were correlated to some extent. HCO3 was absent from more than half the samples. NO3 and PO4 were usually low in concentration. Sea-spray influence appeared greatest in autumn, while industrial pollution reached its highest concentration in spring. The ecological significance of the ions in rain is pointed out.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)231-239
Number of pages9
JournalGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
StatePublished - 1955


  • Acidity of atmospheric precipitation and contributing environmental factors

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