Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids are not associated with Peripheral Artery Disease in a Meta-Analysis from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Cohorts

Natalie L. Weir, Sarah O. Nomura, Weihua Guan, Parveen K. Garg, Matthew Allison, Jeffrey R. Misialek, Amy B. Karger, James S. Pankow, Michael Y. Tsai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Research suggests omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert favorable effects on several biological processes involved in the development and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, studies examining the relationship between omega-3 PUFAs and peripheral artery disease (PAD) are scarce. Objectives: We evaluated the associations between omega-3 PUFAs and incident PAD in a meta-analysis of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study cohorts. Methods: Omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were measured at baseline for all MESA (n = 6495) and Minnesota ARIC participants (n = 3612). Incident clinical PAD events (MESA n = 106; ARIC n = 149) identified primarily through ICD discharge codes were assessed through follow-up of each cohort. Associations between omega-3 PUFAs (EPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA) and incident PAD were modeled in MESA and ARIC as quartiles and continuously using Cox proportional hazards regression, respectively. A fixed-effects meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate associations in the 2 cohorts combined. Results: In the fully adjusted model, in 10,107 participants, no significant associations were observed between EPA, DHA, or EPA+DHA, and incident PAD modeled as quartiles or continuously for either MESA or ARIC cohorts separately or in the meta-analysis after a follow-up of approximately 15 y. Conclusion: This study is consistent with previous literature indicating that the beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFAs on the markers of ASCVD may not translate to a clinically meaningful decrease in PAD risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)87-94
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume154
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Society for Nutrition

Keywords

  • ARIC
  • DHA
  • EPA
  • MESA
  • Omega-3 PUFAs
  • PAD
  • fatty acids

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Journal Article

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