Reported research since 1975 on human behavior and energy consumption was reviewed to identify occupant predictors of household energy-consumption behavior and energy-consumption change. The results of this review were framed against a human ecosystem theory model. Occupant predictors of reduced energy-consumption behavior and energy-consumption change were classified as occupant characteristics, occupant attitudes, and occupant actions. Variables identified in studies that most frequently affected energy behavior and energy consumption were income, age, education, home ownership, desire for comfort, major weatherization, and incentives. These findings support the underlying premise of the human ecosystem theory: Variables from the natural, the social, and the designed environments and human organism variables interact to affect energy consumption.