Observations of schooling behaviour in the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana in coastal waters of Okinawa Island

Chikatoshi Sugimoto, Ryoko Yanagisawa, Ryuta Nakajima, Yuzuru Ikeda

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14 Scopus citations


The schooling behaviour of the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana was observed over 4 summers at 3 observation sites in the coastal waters of Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. During this field study, 3 static appearances (belt, ball and sheet shape) and 2 transitional appearances (high and low density) were noted, recorded and described. In addition to formations, a member of S. lessoniana schools also displayed particular and repeated behavioural patterns such as vanguard and intimidating display. The 3 observation sites were tropical coral reefs near the coastline at a depth of 1 to 15 m on an average. All participating observers snorkelled and were equipped with various underwater digital video and photographic cameras. The schools observed consisted of 8 to over 100 members with a wide range of body sizes. Despite these biological and locational differences, both static and transitional appearances were consistently observed with equally consistent individual behavioural patterns. There have been studies on related species, Sepioteuthis sepioidea, at the San Blas Islands along the Caribbean coast of eastern Panama, and the same species, S. lessoniana, at a different geographical location, Casuarina Beach on Lizard Island, Australia. The findings of this study are consistent with those reported previously, with some notable differences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere34
JournalMarine Biodiversity Records
StatePublished - Jan 2013


  • Cephalopoda
  • Vanguard
  • follower
  • leader
  • oval squid
  • school


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