Observation of muon intensity variations by season with the MINOS far detector

P. Adamson, C. Andreopoulos, K. E. Arms, R. Armstrong, D. J. Auty, D. S. Ayres, C. Backhouse, J. Barnett, G. Barr, W. L. Barrett, B. R. Becker, M. Bishai, A. Blake, B. Bock, G. J. Bock, D. J. Boehnlein, D. Bogert, C. Bower, S. Cavanaugh, J. D. ChapmanD. Cherdack, S. Childress, B. C. Choudhary, J. H. Cobb, S. J. Coleman, D. Cronin-Hennessy, A. J. Culling, I. Z. Danko, J. K. De Jong, N. E. Devenish, M. V. Diwan, M. Dorman, C. O. Escobar, J. J. Evans, E. Falk, G. J. Feldman, T. H. Fields, M. V. Frohne, H. R. Gallagher, A. Godley, M. C. Goodman, P. Gouffon, R. Gran, E. W. Grashorn, K. Grzelak, A. Habig, D. Harris, P. G. Harris, J. Hartnell, R. Hatcher, K. Heller, A. Himmel, A. Holin, J. Hylen, G. M. Irwin, Z. Isvan, D. E. Jaffe, C. James, D. Jensen, T. Kafka, S. M S Kasahara, G. Koizumi, S. Kopp, M. Kordosky, K. Korman, D. J. Koskinen, Z. Krahn, A. Kreymer, K. Lang, J. Ling, P. J. Litchfield, L. Loiacono, P. Lucas, J. Ma, W. A. Mann, M. L. Marshak, J. S. Marshall, N. Mayer, A. M. McGowan, R. Mehdiyev, J. R. Meier, M. D. Messier, C. J. Metelko, D. G. Michael, W. H. Miller, S. R. Mishra, J. Mitchell, C. D. Moore, J. Morfín, L. Mualem, S. Mufson, J. Musser, D. Naples, J. K. Nelson, H. B. Newman, R. J. Nichol, T. C. Nicholls, J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux, W. P. Oliver, T. Osiecki, R. Ospanov, S. Osprey, J. Paley, R. B. Patterson, T. Patzak, G. Pawloski, G. F. Pearce, E. A. Peterson, R. Pittam, R. K. Plunkett, A. Rahaman, R. A. Rameika, T. M. Raufer, B. Rebel, J. Reichenbacher, P. A. Rodrigues, C. Rosenfeld, H. A. Rubin, V. A. Ryabov, M. C. Sanchez, N. Saoulidou, J. Schneps, P. Schreiner, P. Shanahan, W. Smart, C. Smith, A. Sousa, B. Speakman, P. Stamoulis, M. Strait, N. Tagg, R. L. Talaga, J. Thomas, M. A. Thomson, J. L. Thron, G. Tinti, R. Toner, V. A. Tsarev, G. Tzanakos, J. Urheim, P. Vahle, B. Viren, M. Watabe, A. Weber, R. C. Webb, N. West, C. White, L. Whitehead, S. G. Wojcicki, D. M. Wright, T. Yang, M. Zois, K. Zhang, R. Zwaska

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The temperature of the upper atmosphere affects the height of primary cosmic ray interactions and the production of high-energy cosmic ray muons which can be detected deep underground. The MINOS far detector at Soudan, MN, has collected over 67×106 cosmic ray induced muons. The underground muon rate measured over a period of five years exhibits a 4% peak-to-peak seasonal variation which is highly correlated with the temperature in the upper atmosphere. The coefficient, αT, relating changes in the muon rate to changes in atmospheric temperature was found to be αT=0.873±0. 009(stat)±0.010(syst). Pions and kaons in the primary hadronic interactions of cosmic rays in the atmosphere contribute differently to αT due to the different masses and lifetimes. This allows the measured value of αT to be interpreted as a measurement of the K/π ratio for Ep 7TeV of 0.12-0.05+0.07, consistent with the expectation from collider experiments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number012001
JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Volume81
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 6 2010

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muons
cosmic rays
detectors
upper atmosphere
primary cosmic rays
atmospheric temperature
kaons
annual variations
pions
interactions
atmospheres
life (durability)
temperature
coefficients
energy

Cite this

Adamson, P., Andreopoulos, C., Arms, K. E., Armstrong, R., Auty, D. J., Ayres, D. S., ... Zwaska, R. (2010). Observation of muon intensity variations by season with the MINOS far detector. Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, 81(1), [012001]. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.81.012001

Observation of muon intensity variations by season with the MINOS far detector. / Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Arms, K. E.; Armstrong, R.; Auty, D. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Backhouse, C.; Barnett, J.; Barr, G.; Barrett, W. L.; Becker, B. R.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, B.; Bock, G. J.; Boehnlein, D. J.; Bogert, D.; Bower, C.; Cavanaugh, S.; Chapman, J. D.; Cherdack, D.; Childress, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Cobb, J. H.; Coleman, S. J.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Culling, A. J.; Danko, I. Z.; De Jong, J. K.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Dorman, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Fields, T. H.; Frohne, M. V.; Gallagher, H. R.; Godley, A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Gran, R.; Grashorn, E. W.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Harris, D.; Harris, P. G.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Heller, K.; Himmel, A.; Holin, A.; Hylen, J.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M S; Koizumi, G.; Kopp, S.; Kordosky, M.; Korman, K.; Koskinen, D. J.; Krahn, Z.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Loiacono, L.; Lucas, P.; Ma, J.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Marshall, J. S.; Mayer, N.; McGowan, A. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Metelko, C. J.; Michael, D. G.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Mitchell, J.; Moore, C. D.; Morfín, J.; Mualem, L.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nicholls, T. C.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Oliver, W. P.; Osiecki, T.; Ospanov, R.; Osprey, S.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Patzak, T.; Pawloski, G.; Pearce, G. F.; Peterson, E. A.; Pittam, R.; Plunkett, R. K.; Rahaman, A.; Rameika, R. A.; Raufer, T. M.; Rebel, B.; Reichenbacher, J.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Ryabov, V. A.; Sanchez, M. C.; Saoulidou, N.; Schneps, J.; Schreiner, P.; Shanahan, P.; Smart, W.; Smith, C.; Sousa, A.; Speakman, B.; Stamoulis, P.; Strait, M.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Thron, J. L.; Tinti, G.; Toner, R.; Tsarev, V. A.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Viren, B.; Watabe, M.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; West, N.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Wright, D. M.; Yang, T.; Zois, M.; Zhang, K.; Zwaska, R.

In: Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol. 81, No. 1, 012001, 06.01.2010.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Adamson, P, Andreopoulos, C, Arms, KE, Armstrong, R, Auty, DJ, Ayres, DS, Backhouse, C, Barnett, J, Barr, G, Barrett, WL, Becker, BR, Bishai, M, Blake, A, Bock, B, Bock, GJ, Boehnlein, DJ, Bogert, D, Bower, C, Cavanaugh, S, Chapman, JD, Cherdack, D, Childress, S, Choudhary, BC, Cobb, JH, Coleman, SJ, Cronin-Hennessy, D, Culling, AJ, Danko, IZ, De Jong, JK, Devenish, NE, Diwan, MV, Dorman, M, Escobar, CO, Evans, JJ, Falk, E, Feldman, GJ, Fields, TH, Frohne, MV, Gallagher, HR, Godley, A, Goodman, MC, Gouffon, P, Gran, R, Grashorn, EW, Grzelak, K, Habig, A, Harris, D, Harris, PG, Hartnell, J, Hatcher, R, Heller, K, Himmel, A, Holin, A, Hylen, J, Irwin, GM, Isvan, Z, Jaffe, DE, James, C, Jensen, D, Kafka, T, Kasahara, SMS, Koizumi, G, Kopp, S, Kordosky, M, Korman, K, Koskinen, DJ, Krahn, Z, Kreymer, A, Lang, K, Ling, J, Litchfield, PJ, Loiacono, L, Lucas, P, Ma, J, Mann, WA, Marshak, ML, Marshall, JS, Mayer, N, McGowan, AM, Mehdiyev, R, Meier, JR, Messier, MD, Metelko, CJ, Michael, DG, Miller, WH, Mishra, SR, Mitchell, J, Moore, CD, Morfín, J, Mualem, L, Mufson, S, Musser, J, Naples, D, Nelson, JK, Newman, HB, Nichol, RJ, Nicholls, TC, Ochoa-Ricoux, JP, Oliver, WP, Osiecki, T, Ospanov, R, Osprey, S, Paley, J, Patterson, RB, Patzak, T, Pawloski, G, Pearce, GF, Peterson, EA, Pittam, R, Plunkett, RK, Rahaman, A, Rameika, RA, Raufer, TM, Rebel, B, Reichenbacher, J, Rodrigues, PA, Rosenfeld, C, Rubin, HA, Ryabov, VA, Sanchez, MC, Saoulidou, N, Schneps, J, Schreiner, P, Shanahan, P, Smart, W, Smith, C, Sousa, A, Speakman, B, Stamoulis, P, Strait, M, Tagg, N, Talaga, RL, Thomas, J, Thomson, MA, Thron, JL, Tinti, G, Toner, R, Tsarev, VA, Tzanakos, G, Urheim, J, Vahle, P, Viren, B, Watabe, M, Weber, A, Webb, RC, West, N, White, C, Whitehead, L, Wojcicki, SG, Wright, DM, Yang, T, Zois, M, Zhang, K & Zwaska, R 2010, 'Observation of muon intensity variations by season with the MINOS far detector', Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, vol. 81, no. 1, 012001. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.81.012001
Adamson, P. ; Andreopoulos, C. ; Arms, K. E. ; Armstrong, R. ; Auty, D. J. ; Ayres, D. S. ; Backhouse, C. ; Barnett, J. ; Barr, G. ; Barrett, W. L. ; Becker, B. R. ; Bishai, M. ; Blake, A. ; Bock, B. ; Bock, G. J. ; Boehnlein, D. J. ; Bogert, D. ; Bower, C. ; Cavanaugh, S. ; Chapman, J. D. ; Cherdack, D. ; Childress, S. ; Choudhary, B. C. ; Cobb, J. H. ; Coleman, S. J. ; Cronin-Hennessy, D. ; Culling, A. J. ; Danko, I. Z. ; De Jong, J. K. ; Devenish, N. E. ; Diwan, M. V. ; Dorman, M. ; Escobar, C. O. ; Evans, J. J. ; Falk, E. ; Feldman, G. J. ; Fields, T. H. ; Frohne, M. V. ; Gallagher, H. R. ; Godley, A. ; Goodman, M. C. ; Gouffon, P. ; Gran, R. ; Grashorn, E. W. ; Grzelak, K. ; Habig, A. ; Harris, D. ; Harris, P. G. ; Hartnell, J. ; Hatcher, R. ; Heller, K. ; Himmel, A. ; Holin, A. ; Hylen, J. ; Irwin, G. M. ; Isvan, Z. ; Jaffe, D. E. ; James, C. ; Jensen, D. ; Kafka, T. ; Kasahara, S. M S ; Koizumi, G. ; Kopp, S. ; Kordosky, M. ; Korman, K. ; Koskinen, D. J. ; Krahn, Z. ; Kreymer, A. ; Lang, K. ; Ling, J. ; Litchfield, P. J. ; Loiacono, L. ; Lucas, P. ; Ma, J. ; Mann, W. A. ; Marshak, M. L. ; Marshall, J. S. ; Mayer, N. ; McGowan, A. M. ; Mehdiyev, R. ; Meier, J. R. ; Messier, M. D. ; Metelko, C. J. ; Michael, D. G. ; Miller, W. H. ; Mishra, S. R. ; Mitchell, J. ; Moore, C. D. ; Morfín, J. ; Mualem, L. ; Mufson, S. ; Musser, J. ; Naples, D. ; Nelson, J. K. ; Newman, H. B. ; Nichol, R. J. ; Nicholls, T. C. ; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P. ; Oliver, W. P. ; Osiecki, T. ; Ospanov, R. ; Osprey, S. ; Paley, J. ; Patterson, R. B. ; Patzak, T. ; Pawloski, G. ; Pearce, G. F. ; Peterson, E. A. ; Pittam, R. ; Plunkett, R. K. ; Rahaman, A. ; Rameika, R. A. ; Raufer, T. M. ; Rebel, B. ; Reichenbacher, J. ; Rodrigues, P. A. ; Rosenfeld, C. ; Rubin, H. A. ; Ryabov, V. A. ; Sanchez, M. C. ; Saoulidou, N. ; Schneps, J. ; Schreiner, P. ; Shanahan, P. ; Smart, W. ; Smith, C. ; Sousa, A. ; Speakman, B. ; Stamoulis, P. ; Strait, M. ; Tagg, N. ; Talaga, R. L. ; Thomas, J. ; Thomson, M. A. ; Thron, J. L. ; Tinti, G. ; Toner, R. ; Tsarev, V. A. ; Tzanakos, G. ; Urheim, J. ; Vahle, P. ; Viren, B. ; Watabe, M. ; Weber, A. ; Webb, R. C. ; West, N. ; White, C. ; Whitehead, L. ; Wojcicki, S. G. ; Wright, D. M. ; Yang, T. ; Zois, M. ; Zhang, K. ; Zwaska, R. / Observation of muon intensity variations by season with the MINOS far detector. In: Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology. 2010 ; Vol. 81, No. 1.
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title = "Observation of muon intensity variations by season with the MINOS far detector",
abstract = "The temperature of the upper atmosphere affects the height of primary cosmic ray interactions and the production of high-energy cosmic ray muons which can be detected deep underground. The MINOS far detector at Soudan, MN, has collected over 67×106 cosmic ray induced muons. The underground muon rate measured over a period of five years exhibits a 4{\%} peak-to-peak seasonal variation which is highly correlated with the temperature in the upper atmosphere. The coefficient, αT, relating changes in the muon rate to changes in atmospheric temperature was found to be αT=0.873±0. 009(stat)±0.010(syst). Pions and kaons in the primary hadronic interactions of cosmic rays in the atmosphere contribute differently to αT due to the different masses and lifetimes. This allows the measured value of αT to be interpreted as a measurement of the K/π ratio for Ep 7TeV of 0.12-0.05+0.07, consistent with the expectation from collider experiments.",
author = "P. Adamson and C. Andreopoulos and Arms, {K. E.} and R. Armstrong and Auty, {D. J.} and Ayres, {D. S.} and C. Backhouse and J. Barnett and G. Barr and Barrett, {W. L.} and Becker, {B. R.} and M. Bishai and A. Blake and B. Bock and Bock, {G. J.} and Boehnlein, {D. J.} and D. Bogert and C. Bower and S. Cavanaugh and Chapman, {J. D.} and D. Cherdack and S. Childress and Choudhary, {B. C.} and Cobb, {J. H.} and Coleman, {S. J.} and D. Cronin-Hennessy and Culling, {A. J.} and Danko, {I. Z.} and {De Jong}, {J. K.} and Devenish, {N. E.} and Diwan, {M. V.} and M. Dorman and Escobar, {C. O.} and Evans, {J. J.} and E. Falk and Feldman, {G. J.} and Fields, {T. H.} and Frohne, {M. V.} and Gallagher, {H. R.} and A. Godley and Goodman, {M. C.} and P. Gouffon and R. Gran and Grashorn, {E. W.} and K. Grzelak and A. Habig and D. Harris and Harris, {P. G.} and J. Hartnell and R. Hatcher and K. Heller and A. Himmel and A. Holin and J. Hylen and Irwin, {G. M.} and Z. Isvan and Jaffe, {D. E.} and C. James and D. Jensen and T. Kafka and Kasahara, {S. M S} and G. Koizumi and S. Kopp and M. Kordosky and K. Korman and Koskinen, {D. J.} and Z. Krahn and A. Kreymer and K. Lang and J. Ling and Litchfield, {P. J.} and L. Loiacono and P. Lucas and J. Ma and Mann, {W. A.} and Marshak, {M. L.} and Marshall, {J. S.} and N. Mayer and McGowan, {A. M.} and R. Mehdiyev and Meier, {J. R.} and Messier, {M. D.} and Metelko, {C. J.} and Michael, {D. G.} and Miller, {W. H.} and Mishra, {S. R.} and J. Mitchell and Moore, {C. D.} and J. Morf{\'i}n and L. Mualem and S. Mufson and J. Musser and D. Naples and Nelson, {J. K.} and Newman, {H. B.} and Nichol, {R. J.} and Nicholls, {T. C.} and Ochoa-Ricoux, {J. P.} and Oliver, {W. P.} and T. Osiecki and R. Ospanov and S. Osprey and J. Paley and Patterson, {R. B.} and T. Patzak and G. Pawloski and Pearce, {G. F.} and Peterson, {E. A.} and R. Pittam and Plunkett, {R. K.} and A. Rahaman and Rameika, {R. A.} and Raufer, {T. M.} and B. Rebel and J. Reichenbacher and Rodrigues, {P. A.} and C. Rosenfeld and Rubin, {H. A.} and Ryabov, {V. A.} and Sanchez, {M. C.} and N. Saoulidou and J. Schneps and P. Schreiner and P. Shanahan and W. Smart and C. Smith and A. Sousa and B. Speakman and P. Stamoulis and M. Strait and N. Tagg and Talaga, {R. L.} and J. Thomas and Thomson, {M. A.} and Thron, {J. L.} and G. Tinti and R. Toner and Tsarev, {V. A.} and G. Tzanakos and J. Urheim and P. Vahle and B. Viren and M. Watabe and A. Weber and Webb, {R. C.} and N. West and C. White and L. Whitehead and Wojcicki, {S. G.} and Wright, {D. M.} and T. Yang and M. Zois and K. Zhang and R. Zwaska",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Observation of muon intensity variations by season with the MINOS far detector

AU - Adamson, P.

AU - Andreopoulos, C.

AU - Arms, K. E.

AU - Armstrong, R.

AU - Auty, D. J.

AU - Ayres, D. S.

AU - Backhouse, C.

AU - Barnett, J.

AU - Barr, G.

AU - Barrett, W. L.

AU - Becker, B. R.

AU - Bishai, M.

AU - Blake, A.

AU - Bock, B.

AU - Bock, G. J.

AU - Boehnlein, D. J.

AU - Bogert, D.

AU - Bower, C.

AU - Cavanaugh, S.

AU - Chapman, J. D.

AU - Cherdack, D.

AU - Childress, S.

AU - Choudhary, B. C.

AU - Cobb, J. H.

AU - Coleman, S. J.

AU - Cronin-Hennessy, D.

AU - Culling, A. J.

AU - Danko, I. Z.

AU - De Jong, J. K.

AU - Devenish, N. E.

AU - Diwan, M. V.

AU - Dorman, M.

AU - Escobar, C. O.

AU - Evans, J. J.

AU - Falk, E.

AU - Feldman, G. J.

AU - Fields, T. H.

AU - Frohne, M. V.

AU - Gallagher, H. R.

AU - Godley, A.

AU - Goodman, M. C.

AU - Gouffon, P.

AU - Gran, R.

AU - Grashorn, E. W.

AU - Grzelak, K.

AU - Habig, A.

AU - Harris, D.

AU - Harris, P. G.

AU - Hartnell, J.

AU - Hatcher, R.

AU - Heller, K.

AU - Himmel, A.

AU - Holin, A.

AU - Hylen, J.

AU - Irwin, G. M.

AU - Isvan, Z.

AU - Jaffe, D. E.

AU - James, C.

AU - Jensen, D.

AU - Kafka, T.

AU - Kasahara, S. M S

AU - Koizumi, G.

AU - Kopp, S.

AU - Kordosky, M.

AU - Korman, K.

AU - Koskinen, D. J.

AU - Krahn, Z.

AU - Kreymer, A.

AU - Lang, K.

AU - Ling, J.

AU - Litchfield, P. J.

AU - Loiacono, L.

AU - Lucas, P.

AU - Ma, J.

AU - Mann, W. A.

AU - Marshak, M. L.

AU - Marshall, J. S.

AU - Mayer, N.

AU - McGowan, A. M.

AU - Mehdiyev, R.

AU - Meier, J. R.

AU - Messier, M. D.

AU - Metelko, C. J.

AU - Michael, D. G.

AU - Miller, W. H.

AU - Mishra, S. R.

AU - Mitchell, J.

AU - Moore, C. D.

AU - Morfín, J.

AU - Mualem, L.

AU - Mufson, S.

AU - Musser, J.

AU - Naples, D.

AU - Nelson, J. K.

AU - Newman, H. B.

AU - Nichol, R. J.

AU - Nicholls, T. C.

AU - Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.

AU - Oliver, W. P.

AU - Osiecki, T.

AU - Ospanov, R.

AU - Osprey, S.

AU - Paley, J.

AU - Patterson, R. B.

AU - Patzak, T.

AU - Pawloski, G.

AU - Pearce, G. F.

AU - Peterson, E. A.

AU - Pittam, R.

AU - Plunkett, R. K.

AU - Rahaman, A.

AU - Rameika, R. A.

AU - Raufer, T. M.

AU - Rebel, B.

AU - Reichenbacher, J.

AU - Rodrigues, P. A.

AU - Rosenfeld, C.

AU - Rubin, H. A.

AU - Ryabov, V. A.

AU - Sanchez, M. C.

AU - Saoulidou, N.

AU - Schneps, J.

AU - Schreiner, P.

AU - Shanahan, P.

AU - Smart, W.

AU - Smith, C.

AU - Sousa, A.

AU - Speakman, B.

AU - Stamoulis, P.

AU - Strait, M.

AU - Tagg, N.

AU - Talaga, R. L.

AU - Thomas, J.

AU - Thomson, M. A.

AU - Thron, J. L.

AU - Tinti, G.

AU - Toner, R.

AU - Tsarev, V. A.

AU - Tzanakos, G.

AU - Urheim, J.

AU - Vahle, P.

AU - Viren, B.

AU - Watabe, M.

AU - Weber, A.

AU - Webb, R. C.

AU - West, N.

AU - White, C.

AU - Whitehead, L.

AU - Wojcicki, S. G.

AU - Wright, D. M.

AU - Yang, T.

AU - Zois, M.

AU - Zhang, K.

AU - Zwaska, R.

PY - 2010/1/6

Y1 - 2010/1/6

N2 - The temperature of the upper atmosphere affects the height of primary cosmic ray interactions and the production of high-energy cosmic ray muons which can be detected deep underground. The MINOS far detector at Soudan, MN, has collected over 67×106 cosmic ray induced muons. The underground muon rate measured over a period of five years exhibits a 4% peak-to-peak seasonal variation which is highly correlated with the temperature in the upper atmosphere. The coefficient, αT, relating changes in the muon rate to changes in atmospheric temperature was found to be αT=0.873±0. 009(stat)±0.010(syst). Pions and kaons in the primary hadronic interactions of cosmic rays in the atmosphere contribute differently to αT due to the different masses and lifetimes. This allows the measured value of αT to be interpreted as a measurement of the K/π ratio for Ep 7TeV of 0.12-0.05+0.07, consistent with the expectation from collider experiments.

AB - The temperature of the upper atmosphere affects the height of primary cosmic ray interactions and the production of high-energy cosmic ray muons which can be detected deep underground. The MINOS far detector at Soudan, MN, has collected over 67×106 cosmic ray induced muons. The underground muon rate measured over a period of five years exhibits a 4% peak-to-peak seasonal variation which is highly correlated with the temperature in the upper atmosphere. The coefficient, αT, relating changes in the muon rate to changes in atmospheric temperature was found to be αT=0.873±0. 009(stat)±0.010(syst). Pions and kaons in the primary hadronic interactions of cosmic rays in the atmosphere contribute differently to αT due to the different masses and lifetimes. This allows the measured value of αT to be interpreted as a measurement of the K/π ratio for Ep 7TeV of 0.12-0.05+0.07, consistent with the expectation from collider experiments.

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U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevD.81.012001

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevD.81.012001

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