Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding came from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Strategic Patient-Oriented Research initiative, Obesity Canada’s Fund for Obesity Collaboration and Unified Strategies (FOCUS) initiative, the Canadian Association of Bariatric Physicians and Surgeons, and in-kind support from the scientific and professional volunteers engaged in the process. The views of the funding body have not influenced the content of the guideline. All committee members (executive and steering committees), chapter leads and chapter authors were volunteers and not remunerated for their services.
Competing interests: Sean Wharton reports receiving honoraria and travel expenses and has participated in academic advisory boards for Novo Nordisk, Bausch Health, Eli Lilly and Janssen. Sean Wharton is also the medical director of a medical clinic specializing in weight management and diabetes. David Lau reports receiving grants and research support from AstraZeneca, Novo Nordisk and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); speaker bureau fees from AstraZeneca, Bausch Health, Boehringer Ingelheim, Diabetes Canada, Eli Lilly, Merck and Novo Nordisk; and consulting fees from Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bausch Health, Boehringer Ingelheim, Gilead, HLS Therapeutics, Janssen, Eli Lilly and Novo Nordisk. Michael Vallis is a member of advisory boards for Novo Nordisk, Bausch Health and LifeScan. Michael Vallis has also received consulting fees from Bausch Health, LifeScan, Novo Nordisk and Sanofi, and speaking fees from Novo Nordisk, Sanofi, Bausch Health, Abbott and AbbVie. Arya Sharma reports receiving speaker’s bureau and consulting fees from Novo Nordisk, Bausch Pharmaceuticals and Astra-Zeneca. Laurent Biertho reports receiving grants from Johnson and Johnson and Medtronic, and is a member of advisory boards for Novo Nordisk and Bausch Health, outside the submitted work. Denise Campbell-Scherer has no personal financial relationships, but reports receiving research funding from the following sources in the past 3 years: Novo Nordisk Alberta Diabetes Fund (NOVAD), a peer-reviewed grant that is a partnership between the University Hospital Foundation, Novo Nordisk and Alberta Innovates joint funders; Alberta Innovates Health Solutions (Cancer Prevention Research Opportunity and Collaborative Research and Innovation Opportunities competitions), CIHR (Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research and Knowledge-to-Action competitions); Northern Alberta Family Medicine Fund; and the Alberta Cancer Prevention and Legacy Fund. She also reports receiving knowledge transfer funding from the following sources in the past 3 years: an unrestricted education grant from Obesity Canada, funded by Novo Nordisk Global; a Worldwide University Network Meeting Grant; an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality R13 grant for a Healthcare Effectiveness and Outcomes Research; and a Physician Learning Program grant from Alberta Health and the Alberta Medical Association. Angela Alberga reports receiving the following grants: the Santé Award from Fonds de Recherche du Quebec, the Mitacs Accelerate Grant, and the Concordia University Start-up Team Grant, outside the submitted work. Jennifer Brown reports receiving nonfinancial support from Novo Nordisk, and personal fees from Bausch Health, Dietitians of Canada, Obesity Canada and the Canadian Association of Bariatric Physicians & Surgeons. Yoni Freedhoff is the co-owner of the Bariatric Medical Institute and Constant Health, which provide weight management services; Constant Health has received a grant from Novo Nordisk. Yoni Freedhoff is also the author of The Diet Fix: Why Diets Fail and How to Make Yours Work published by Crown Publishing Group, and receives royalties for the book. In addition, he is the sole author of the Weighty Matters blog and a column for Medscape and many other op-eds and articles in which he has publicly expressed opinions about the treatment, management and prevention of obesity. Yoni Freedhoff also regularly speaks on topics related to obesity and receives honoraria and travel costs and expenses for same. Michel Gagner reports receiving speaker honoraria from Ethicon, WL Gore and Medtronic; consulting fees from Novo Nordisk, Bausch Health and Lexington Medical; and holds stock options with Lexington Medical. Margaret Hahn reports receiving consulting fees from Alkermes. Marie-France Langlois reports receiving personal fees from Novo Nordisk, Valeant, Merck Canada, Sanofi, Eli Lilly and Boehringer Ingelheim; a grant from Merck Canada; and other fees from AstraZeneca and from TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) Study Group for diabetes clinical research as a principal investigator, all outside the submitted work. David Macklin reports receiving personal fees from Novo Nordisk and Bausch Health, outside the submitted work. Priya Manjoo reports receiving personal fees from Novo Nordisk, Bausch Health and Sanofi; and grants from Boehringer Ingelheim, Sanofi and AstraZeneca, outside the submitted work. Marie-Philippe Morin reports receiving speaker honoraria from Novo Nordisk, Bausch Health, Eli Lilly, Boehringer Ingelheim, Nestlé Health Science, Janssen and AstraZeneca; research subvention from Novo Nordisk and Sanofi; and consultation honoraria from Novo Nordisk, Bausch Health, Eli Lilly, Boehringer Ingel-heim, Janssen and AstraZeneca. Sue Pedersen reports receiving personal fees from Novo Nordisk, Bausch Health, Janssen, Eli Lilly, Merck, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Sanofi, Pfizer; grants from Eli Lilly, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim and Sanofi; and nonfinancial support from Novo Nordisk, Bausch Health, Janssen, Eli Lilly, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim and Sanofi, outside the submitted work. Megha Poddar reports receiving honoraria for continuing medical education (CME) from Novo Nordisk, Bausch Health, Boehringer Ingelheim, Eli Lilly, Jenssen, Merck, the Canadian Collaborative Research Network and the Antibody Network; education grants from Novo Nordisk and Bausch Health; fees for mentorship from Novo Nordisk; fees for membership of advisory boards from Novo Nordisk and Bausch Health; and a quality improvement project grant from Boehringer Ingelheim. Paul Poirier reports receiving fees for consulting and continuing medical education from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Janssen, Eli Lilly, Novo Nordisk, Valeant and Bausch Health, outside the submitted work. Judy Shiau reports receiving personal fees from Novo Nordisk and Bausch Health, outside the submitted work. Diana Sherifali reports receiving consulting fees for advice regarding chronic disease and diabetes management from Merck, and a grant from Obesity Canada to support the literature review process, during the conduct of the study. John Sievenpiper reports receiving grants from CIHR, the Nutrition Trialists Fund at the University of Toronto, the International Nut and Dried Fruit Council Foundation, the Tate & Lyle Nutritional Research Fund at the University of Toronto, the American Society for Nutrition, the Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Fund at the University of Toronto, the National Dried Fruit Trade Association, PSI Graham Farquharson Knowledge Translation Fellowship, the Diabetes Canada Clinician Scientist award, the Banting & Best Diabetes Centre Sun Life Financial New Investigator Award, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, and the Ministry of Research and Innovation’s Ontario Research Fund. Dr. Sievenpiper has received personal fees from Perkins Coie LLP, Tate & Lyle, Dairy Farmers of Canada, PepsiCo, Food-Minds LLC, European Fruit Juice Association, International Sweeteners Association, Nestlé Health Science, Canadian Society for Endocrinology and Metabolism, GI Foundation, Pulse Canada, Wirtschaftliche Vereini-gung Zucker e.V., Abbott, Biofortis, the European Food Safety Authority, the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, the Soy Nutrition Institute and the Comité Européen des Fabricants de Sucre. Dr. Sievenpiper has received nonfinancial support from Tate & Lyle, PepsiCo, FoodMinds LLC, European Fruit Juice Association, International Sweeteners Association, Nestlé Health Science, Wirtschaftliche Vereinigung Zucker e.V., Abbott, Biofortis, the European Food Safety Authority and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Kellogg Canada, American Peanut Council, Barilla, Unilever, Unico Primo, Loblaw Companies, WhiteWave Foods, Quaker, California Walnut Commission, Almond Board of California, outside the submitted work. Dr. Sievenpiper is a member of the International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium and the Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committees of Diabetes Canada, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, Canadian Cardiovascular Society, and Obesity Canada, and holds appointments as an Executive Board Member of the Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and as Director of the Toronto 3D Knowledge Synthesis and Clinical Trials Foundation. He is also an unpaid scientific adviser for the Program in Food Safety, Nutrition and Regulatory Affairs and the Carbohydrates Committee of the International Life Science Institute North America. He has a spousal relationship with an employee of Anheuser-Busch InBev. Sanjeev Sockalingam reports receiving honoraria from Bausch Health Canada within the last 36 months. Valerie Taylor reports receiving speaker fees from Sunovion. Shahebina Walji reports receiving consulting
Funding: Funding for this initiative was provided by Obesity Canada, the Canadian Association of Bariatric Physicians and Surgeons, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research through a Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research grant, with no participants or authors receiving any personal funding for their creation.