Twenty carbohydrates (C), 18 nitrogen compounds (N), and 9 vitamins were examined for their effects on the growth and conidiation of the nematode-egg-parasitic fungi Arkansas Fungus 18 (ARF18, isolate 908) and Pochonia chlamydospora var. chlamydospora in solid and liquid cultures. Glycogen was the best, and inulin, D-(+)-galactose, and soluble starch were good C sources for the growth of ARF18 in both solid and liquid cultures. ARF18 could not utilize α-cellulose in liquid; α-lactose and D-mannitol in solid; and D-(+)-xylose, L-(-)-sorbose, and D-(-)-ribose in both solid and liquid cultures. Casein was the best N source for ARF18 growth in both solid and liquid cultures and L-aspartic acid, DL-glutamic acid, peptone, and L-histidine were good in solid culture. ARF18 could not utilize L-cystine and L-tyrosine in solid culture, and L-cystine, DL-methionine, peptone, L-proline, and ammonium nitrate in liquid culture. Supplement of vitamins appeared to be unnecessary for ARF18 to grow. For P. chlamydospora var. chlamydospora growth, all test C sources, except L-(-)-sorbose, α-cellulose, citric acid, and D-(+)-glucose, were good in both solid and liquid cultures. Most N compounds were good for P. chlamydospora var. chlamydospora growth with casein and peptone the best. Vitamins had limited effect on P. chlamydospora var. chlamydospora growth. P. chlamydospora var. chlamydospora conidiation was well supported by D-(-)-ribose, D-(-)-fructose, melibiose, and D-(+)-galactose as C sources and by L-aspartic acid, DL-glutamic acid, and L-arginine as N sources. Excluding myo-inositol from the medium containing all other test vitamins increased P. chlamydospora var. chlamydospora conidiation, while excluding pyridoxine appeared to reduce its conidiation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Ms. R. Adkins, Ms. J. Jin, and Ms. L. Zielinski for technical assistance and P. Timper for providing the ARF18 isolate. This work was supported by a grant from Minnesota Soybean Research and Promotion Council and by the National Scientific Foundation of China.
- Amino acids
- Nematophagous fungi
- Nitrogen compounds
- Nutritional requirements
- Pochonia chlamydospora var. chlamydospora