In the USA, breast cancer accounts for approximately 30% of all cancers diagnosed in women and is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. An understanding of the molecular genetic events governing breast cancer lead to both prevention and intervention strategies in an attempt to reduce mortality and morbidity from breast cancer. The last three decades of medical research examining the molecular pathogenesis of cancers have provided compelling evidence for the universal disruption of the cell cycle in human tumors. The importance of cell cycle control in human cancer was recognized by the recent award of the Nobel Prize to Drs Nurse and Hartwell for their discovery of the cyclins. More recent studies have demonstrated a critical interface between hormonal signaling and the cell cycle. In parallel, epidemiological studies have identified as being associated with breast cancer important dietary and environmental components that regulate hormonal signaling. This review describes the intersection of these two fields of study, which together imply a role for dietary prevention and intervention in human breast cancer perhaps through altering cell cycle components.