1. The best way to prevent early growth failure in children with renal disease is by the use of specified nutrition and appropriate buffer, activated vitamin D, and calcium-containing phosphate binders as needed. With prenatal diagnosis of anatomically abnormal kidneys available, this type of early intervention may be much more feasible in the 1990s. 2. Supplemental sodium and water in children with polyuria and intravascular volume depletion may prevent growth failure. Cow milk is detrimental in this group of individuals because of high solute and protein load, often causing intravascular volume depletion, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis. 3. Children with acquired glomerular disease may need sodium restriction and, if treated with steroids, a diet low in saturated fat. 4. Children with nephrotic syndrome and severe edema should be evaluated for malabsorption and subsequent malnutrition. Protein intake should be supplemented only at the RDA and in replace ongoing losses. Long-term sodium restriction is appropriate. Hyperlipidemia should be monitored; if nephrosis is chronic, a low saturated fat diet should be instituted. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can decrease urinary protein loss and may ameliorate hyperlipidemia. Children resistant to therapy can have very high morbidity. 5. Children with <50% of normal creatinine clearance should have PTH measured and activated vitamin D therapy should be started if PTH is elevated more than two to three times normal. Thereafter careful monitoring of calcium, phosphorus, and PTH is crucial to prevent renal osteodystrophy, low turnover bone disease, and hypercalcemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. 6. Children with tubular defects with severe polyuria also may benefit from low- solute, high-volume feedings. 7. All physicians caring for children with renal disease should have pediatric nephrology consultation available. Prevention of growth hilum is much more cost effective than pharmacologic therapy. Before initiating growth hormone treatment for growth retardation, assiduous treatment of coexisting renal osteodystrophy and provision of optimal nutritional intake should be accomplished.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Journal of Pediatrics|
|State||Published - Dec 1 1996|