Nutritional gaps and supplementation in the first 1000 days

Katrina Beluska-Turkan, Renee Korczak, Beth Hartell, Kristin Moskal, Johanna Maukonen, Diane E. Alexander, Norman Salem, Laura Harkness, Wafaa Ayad, Jacalyn Szaro, Kelly Zhang, Nalin Siriwardhana

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

73 Scopus citations


Optimized nutrition during the first 1000 days (from conception through the 2nd birthday) is critical for healthy development and a healthy life for the newborn. Pregnancy and the postpartum period are accompanied by physiological changes, increased energy needs, and changing requirements in the nutrients critical for optimal growth and development. Infants and toddlers also experience physiological changes and have specific nutritional needs. Food and nutrition experts can provide women of childbearing age with adequate dietary advice to optimize nutrition, as well as guidance on selecting appropriate dietary supplements. Considering the approaching 2020–2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) will be making specific recommendations for children, it is important to provide accurate scientific information to support health influencers in the field of nutrition. The purpose of this review is to summarize the nutrition and supplementation literature for the first 1000 days; to highlight nutritional and knowledge gaps; and to educate nutrition influencers to provide thoughtful guidance to mothers and families. Optimal nutrition during pregnancy through early childhood is critical for supporting a healthy life. Nutrition influencers, such as dietitians, obstetricians/gynecologists, and other relevant health professionals, should continue guiding supplement and food intake and work closely with expectant families and nutrition gatekeepers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2891
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by Church & Dwight Co., Inc., Princeton, NJ, USA.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Deficiency
  • Early childhood
  • First 1000 days
  • Life cycle
  • Nutrition
  • Pregnancy
  • Supplementation


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