The low fiber digestibility and unbalanced amino acids restricted the use of DDGS in swine diets. Key nutrition components dynamic monitoring and key regulatory pathways analysis were performed to find the rules of nutrition changes for DDGS fermented by Aspergillus niger. Cellulose and hemicellulose were reduced to 15.3% and 15.2%. 1,4-D-Xylobiose was decreased from 16.8 µg/mL to 0.2 µg/mL. Lys, Arg, and Thr were increased to 3.00%, 2.89%, and 4.40%, and met the requirements of pigs. The whole fermentation process was divided into three stages. Cellulose degradation and Lys and Arg synthesis occurred in the early stage, while Asp synthesis occurred in the last stage. α-Ketoglutarate was the key factor for Aspergillus niger degrading cellulose to synthesize Lys and Arg. The key active metabolic pathways that respond to the changes in nutrition were identified which preliminarily revealed the rules of nutrition adjustment of DDGS during fermentation with Aspergillus niger.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41861124004).
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Aspergillus niger
- nutrition adjustment
- regulatory pathways