Nutrition as prevention for improved cancer health outcomes: A systematic literature review

Helen M. Parsons, Mary L. Forte, Hamdi Abdi, Sallee Brandt, Amy M. Claussen, Timothy Wilt, Mark A Klein, Elizabeth Ester, Adrienne Landsteiner, Aasma Shaukut, Shalamar S. Sibley, Joanne Slavin, Catherine Sowerby, Weiwen Ng, Mary Butler

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Among adults with cancer, malnutrition is associated with decreased treatment completion, more treatment harms and use of health care, and worse short-term survival. To inform the National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention workshop, "Nutrition as Prevention for Improved Cancer Health Outcomes,"this systematic review examined the evidence for the effectiveness of providing nutrition interventions before or during cancer therapy to improve outcomes of cancer treatment. Methods: We identified randomized controlled trials enrolling at least 50 participants published from 2000 through July 2022. We provide a detailed evidence map for included studies and grouped studies by broad intervention and cancer types. We conducted risk of bias (RoB) and qualitative descriptions of outcomes for intervention and cancer types with a larger volume of literature. Results: From 9798 unique references, 206 randomized controlled trials from 219 publications met the inclusion criteria. Studies primarily focused on nonvitamin or mineral dietary supplements, nutrition support, and route or timing of inpatient nutrition interventions for gastrointestinal or head and neck cancers. Most studies evaluated changes in body weight or composition, adverse events from cancer treatment, length of hospital stay, or quality of life. Few studies were conducted within the United States. Among intervention and cancer types with a high volume of literature (n = 114), 49% (n = 56) were assessed as high RoB. Higher-quality studies (low or medium RoB) reported mixed results on the effect of nutrition interventions across cancer and treatment-related outcomes. Conclusions: Methodological limitations of nutrition intervention studies surrounding cancer treatment impair translation of findings into clinical practice or guidelines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberpkad035
JournalJNCI Cancer Spectrum
Volume7
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported under Contract No 75Q80120D00008 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded the report.

Funding Information:
This work was supported under Contract No 75Q80120D00008 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded the report.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

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