Over the past two decades, type 2 diabetes has emerged as a leading threat to global health, and the considerable overlap in obesity and diabetes trends are likely no coincidence. While the underpinnings for both etiologies are linked to lifestyles, particularly dietary and physical activity patterns, determining optimal approaches for preventing and managing type 2 diabetes using dietary composition remains a challenge. Nutrition and Type 2 Diabetes: Etiology and Prevention rigorously examines various perspectives on diet and type 2 diabetes. The book presents a comprehensive description and evaluation of the central research to date, primarily in humans, on the macronutrients and their subclasses, micronutrients, foods, beverages, and overall dietary patterns with respect to the risk of type 2 diabetes. It addresses the mediating/mechanistic role of obesity and body composition throughout the text where appropriate. The chapter authors, all leading researchers in the field, discuss fundamental nutritional principles applied to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes as well as applied behavioral studies on nutrition and diabetes for each subject area. The depth and breadth of this book includes aspects of the “food synergy” model for understanding the complicated pathways between nutrition, dietary habits, and risk for type 2 diabetes. It also examines the effects of artificially sweetened beverages and coffee. This reference provides a review of the science on the potential impact of many components of dietary behavior and nutritional properties on etiology and risk for this disease, knowledge that is essential for formulating informed approaches to public health progress in this area.