Whether embryonic, hematopoietic or cancer stem cells, this metabolic reprogramming is dependent on the nutrient-status and bioenergetic pathways that is influenced by the micro-environmental niches like hypoxia. Thus, the microenvironment plays a vital role in determining the stem cell fate by inducing metabolic reprogramming. Under the influence of the microenvironment, like hypoxia, the stem cells have increased glucose and glutamine uptake which result in activation of hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) and increased O-GlcNAc Transferase (OGT). The current review is focused on understanding how HBP, a nutrient-sensing pathway (that leads to increased OGT activity) is instrumental in regulating self-renewal not only in embryonic and hematopoietic stem cells (ESC/HSC) but also in cancer stem cells.
- Hexosamine Biosynthesis Pathway