NUP98/NSD1 has recently been reported in association with poor outcome in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Previous studies also observed a high overlap between NUP98/NSD1 and FLT3/ITD, raising the question as to whether the reported poor outcome is due to NUP98/NSD1 or caused by the co-occurrence of these 2 genetic lesions. We aimed to determine the prognostic significance of NUP98/NSD1 in the context of FLT3/ITD AML. A total of 1421 patients enrolled in 5 consecutive Children's Oncology Group/Children's Cancer Group and SWOG trials were evaluated. NUP98/NSD1 was found in 15% of FLT3/ITD and 7% of cytogenetically normal (CN)-AML. Those with dual FLT3/ITD and NUP98/NSD1 (82% of NUP98/NSD1 patients) had a complete remission rate of 27% vs 69% in FLT3/ITD without NUP98/NSD1 (P < .001). The corresponding 3-year overall survival was 31% vs 48% (P = .011), respectively. In CN-AML, patients with concomitant NUP98/NSD1 and FLT3/ITD had a worse outcome than those harboring NUP98/NSD1 only. In multivariate analysis, the dual NUP98/NSD1 and FLT3/ITD remained an independent predictor of poor outcome, and NUP98/NSD1 without FLT3/ITD lost its prognostic significance. Our study demonstrates that it is the interaction between NUP98/NSD1 and FLT3/ITD that determines the poor outcome of patients with NUP98/NSD1 disease.