The effects of fuel sulfur content and primary dilution on PM number emissions were investigated during transient operations of an old and a modern diesel engine. Emissions were also studied during steady-state operations in order to confirm consistency with previous findings. Testing methods were concurrent with those implemented by the EPA to regulate PM mass emissions, including the use of the Federal Transient Testing Procedure-Heavy Duty cycle to simulate transient conditions and the use of a Critical Flow Venturi-Constant Volume System to provide primary dilution. Steady-state results were found to be consistent with previous studies in that nuclei-mode particulate emissions were largely reduced when lower-sulfur content fuel was used in the newer engine, while the nuclei-mode PM emissions from the older engine were much less affected by fuel sulfur content. The transient results, however, show that the total number of nuclei-mode PM emissions from both engines increases with fuel sulfur content, although this effect is only seen under the higher primary dilution ratios with the older engine. Transient results further show that higher primary dilution ratios increase total nuclei-mode PM number emissions in both engines.