Animal fat and iron-rich diets are risk factors for Parkinson’s disease (PD). The heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) harman and norharman are neurotoxicants formed in many foods and beverages, including cooked meats, suggesting a role for red meat in PD. The structurally related carcinogenic HAAs 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) also form in cooked meats. We investigated the cytotoxicity, DNA-damaging potential, and mitochondrial damage of HAAs and their genotoxic HONH-HAA metabolites in galactose-dependent SH-SY5Y cells, a human neuroblastoma cell line relevant for PD-related neurotoxicity. All HAAs and HONH-HAAs induced weak toxicity except HONH-PhIP, which was 1000-fold more potent than the other chemicals. HONH-PhIP DNA adduct formation occurred at 300-fold higher levels than adducts formed with HONH-MeIQx and HONH-AαC, assuming similar cellular uptake rates. PhIP-DNA adduct levels occurred at concentrations as low as 1 nM and were threefold or higher and more persistent in mitochondrial DNA than nuclear DNA. N-Acetyltransferases (NATs), sulfotransferases, and kinases catalyzed PhIP-DNA binding and converted HONH-PhIP to highly reactive ester intermediates. DNA binding assays with cytosolic, mitochondrial, and nuclear fractions of SH-SY5Y fortified with cofactors revealed that cytosolic AcCoA-dependent enzymes, including NAT1, mainly carried out HONH-PhIP bioactivation to form N-acetoxy-PhIP, which binds to DNA. Furthermore, HONH-PHIP and N-acetoxy-PhIP inhibited mitochondrial complex-I, -II, and -III activities in isolated SH-SY5Y mitochondria. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex dysfunction and DNA damage are major mechanisms in PD pathogenesis. Our data support the possible role of PhIP in PD etiology.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work is supported by R01ES025750 (J.R.C.) from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and R01CA122320 (R.J.T.) from the National Cancer Institute.
© 2023 American Chemical Society.
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural