Novel 2-phenyl-4-quinolone compounds have potent cytotoxic effects on different human cancer cell lines. In this study, we examined anticancer activity and mechanisms of 20-fluoro-6,7-methylenedioxy-2-phenyl-4-quinolone (CHM-1) in human osterogenic sarcoma U-2 OS cells. CHM-1-induced apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric analysis, DAPI staining, Comet assay, and caspase inhibitors. CHM-1-inhibited cell migration and invasion was assessed by a wound healing assay, gelatin zymography, and a Transwell assay. The mechanisms of CHM-1effects on apoptosis and metastasis signaling pathways were studied using Western blotting and gene expression. CHM-1 induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis at an IC50 (3 μM) in U-2 OS cells and caspase-3, -8, and -9 were activated. Caspase inhibitors increased cell viability after exposure to CHM-1. CHM-1-induced apoptosis was associated with enhanced ROS generation, DNA damage, decreased ΔΨm levels, and promotion of mitochondrial cytochrome c release. CHM-1 stimulated mRNA expression of caspase-3, -8, and -9, AIF, and Endo G. In addition, CHM-1 inhibited cell metastasis at a low concentration (<3 mM). CHM-1 inhibited the cell metastasis through the inhibition of MMP-2,-7, and -9.CHM-1also decreased the levels of MAPK signaling pathways before leading to the inhibition of MMPs.In summary, CHM-1 is a potent inducer of apoptosis, which plays a role in the anticancer activity of CHM-1.
- Caspase cascade
- Human osterogenic sarcoma U-2 OS cells