Goal: Clinical studies identifying rotors and confirming these sites for ablation in treating cardiac arrhythmias have had inconsistent results with the currently available analysis techniques. The aim of this study is to evaluate four new signal analysis approaches - multiscale frequency (MSF), Shannon entropy (SE), Kurtosis (Kt), and multiscale entropy (MSE) - in their ability to identify the pivot point of rotors. Methods: Optical mapping movies of ventricular tachycardia were used to evaluate the performance and robustness of SE, Kt, MSF, and MSE techniques with respect to several clinical limitations: Decreased time duration, reduced spatial resolution, and the presence of meandering rotors. To quantitatively assess the robustness of the four techniques, results were compared to the 'true' rotor(s) identified using optical mapping-based phase maps. Results: The results demonstrate that MSF, Kt, and MSE accurately identified both stationary and meandering rotors. In addition, these techniques remained accurate under simulated clinical limitations: Shortened electrogram duration and decreased spatial resolution. Artifacts mildly affected the performance of MSF, Kt, and MSE, but strongly impacted the performance of SE. Conclusion: These results motivate further validation using intracardiac electrograms to see if these approaches can map rotors in a clinical setting and whether they apply to more complex arrhythmias including atrial or ventricular fibrillation. Significance: New techniques providing more accurate rotor localization could improve characterization of arrhythmias and, in turn, offer a means to accurately evaluate whether rotor ablation is a viable and effective treatment for chaotic cardiac arrhythmias.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received September 19, 2017; accepted October 10, 2017. Date of publication October 16, 2017; date of current version January 18, 2018. This work was supported by the NSF CAREER PHY-125541 (E.G.T.) and NIH R21HL128790 (E.G.T. and S.K.M.) Grants. (Corresponding author: Elena G. Tolkacheva.) E. M. Annoni and S. P. Arunachalam are with the Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota. S. Kapa, S. K. Mulpuru, and P. A. Friedman are with the Cardiovascular Division, Mayo Clinic. E. G. Tolkacheva is with the Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, MN 55455 USA (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). This paper has supplementary downloadable material available at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TBME.2017.2763460
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- Optical mapping
- pivot point
- ventricular tachycardia