Novel endodontic sealers induce cell cytotoxicity and apoptosis in a dose-dependent behavior and favorable response in mice subcutaneous tissue

L. A.B. Silva, L. U. Azevedo, A. Consolaro, F. Barnett, Y. Xu, R. A. Battaglino, P. S. Cañadas, Katharina Morant Holanda de Oliveira, R. A.B. Silva

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Objectives: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility of two novel endodontic sealers: RealSeal XT1 and Sealapex Xpress on the subcutaneous connective tissue of mice. Materials and methods: The cytotoxicity was assessed by cell viability using the MTT assay (one-way ANOVA), trypan blue test (Mann-Whitney) and cell apoptosis by flow cytometer. For the subcutaneous study, polyethylene tubes filled with the sealers were implanted in 70 BALB/c mice: 6 experimental groups (n = 10/group) and 2 control groups with empty tubes (n = 5/group). At the end of experimental periods (7, 21, and 63 days), the tissue was removed and histotechnically processed. Angioblastic proliferation and edema (Fisher’s exact test) were evaluated, besides thickness measurement (μm) of the reactionary granulomatous tissue and neutrophil counts (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post test; Mann-Whitney) (α = 0.05). Results: MTT assay, trypan blue, and analysis of apoptotic cells showed a dose-dependent direct effect: the more diluted the sealer, the less cytotoxic. Regarding the angioblastic proliferation and edema, difference between the sealers at 7 and 63 days occurred (p < 0.05). Both endodontic sealers initially promoted perimaterial tissue reaction as a foreign body granuloma and thus stimulated favorable tissue responses. Conclusions: Both sealers showed a dose-dependent effect and promoted satisfactory subcutaneous tissue response; the sealer Sealapex Xpress was less cytotoxic and more biocompatible than RealSeal XT. Clinical relevance: The step of root canal filling during endodontic treatment is highly important for the preservation of the periapical tissue integrity. Subcutaneous reaction to endodontic sealers enables scientific basis for clinical use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2851-2861
Number of pages11
JournalClinical oral investigations
Issue number9
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding The work was supported by the São Paulo Research (FAPESP) in Brazil (Grant #2013/21180-7).

Funding Information:
The work was supported by the S?o Paulo Research (FAPESP) in Brazil (Grant #2013/21180-7).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


  • Biocompatibility
  • Cell viability
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Endodontic sealers
  • Mice
  • Tissue response


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