Novel Application of Nutritional Biomarkers From a Controlled Feeding Study and an Observational Study to Characterization of Dietary Patterns in Postmenopausal Women

Marian L. Neuhouser, Mary Pettinger, Johanna W. Lampe, Lesley F. Tinker, Stephanie M. George, Jill Reedy, Xiaoling Song, Bharat Thyagarajan, Shirley A. Beresford, Ross L. Prentice

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Dietary guidance emphasizes healthy dietary patterns, but supporting evidence comes from self-reported dietary data, which are prone to measurement error. We explored whether nutritional biomarkers from the Women's Health Initiative Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study Feeding Study (NPAAS-FS) (n = 153; 2010-2014) and the Women's Health Initiative Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study Observational Study (NPAAS-OS) (n = 450; 2006-2009) could identify biomarker signatures of dietary patterns for development of corresponding regression calibration equations to help mitigate measurement error. Fasting blood samples were assayed for a specific panel of vitamins, carotenoids, and phospholipid fatty acids; 24-hour urine samples were assayed for nitrogen, sodium, and potassium levels. Intake records from the NPAAS-FS were used to calculate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternative Mediterranean diet (aMED), and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores. Scores were regressed on blood and urine nutritional measures for discovery of dietary pattern biomarkers using a cross-validated model R2 ≥ 36% criterion (stage 1). Next, stepwise models (P ≤ 0.10 for entry/removal) using NPAAS-OS data were used to regress stage 1 dietary pattern biomarkers on NPAAS-OS self-reported dietary pattern scores using a food frequency questionnaire, a 4-day food record, and a 24-hour recall (stage 2). HEI-2010 and aMED analyses met the cross-validated R2 ≥ 36% criterion in stage 1, while AHEI-2010 and DASH analyses did not. The R2 values for HEI-2010 stage 2 calibration equations were as follows: food frequency questionnaire, 63.5%; 4-day food record, 83.1%; and 24-hour recall, 77.8%. Stage 2 aMED R2 values were 34.9%-46.8%. Dietary pattern biomarkers have potential for calibrating self-reports to enhance studies of diet-disease associations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2461-2473
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican journal of epidemiology
Volume190
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2021. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

Keywords

  • Healthy Eating Index 2010
  • alternative Mediterranean diet
  • biomarkers
  • diet
  • dietary patterns
  • nutritional epidemiology
  • postmenopausal women

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

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