Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) and remains an area of unmet clinical need with few treatment options available. Notch blockade prevents acute GVHD in multiple mouse models, but the impact of Notch signaling on cGVHD remains unknown. Using genetic and antibody-mediated strategies of Notch inhibition, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in complementary mouse cGVHD models that mimic several aspects of human cGVHD in search of candidate therapeutics. In the B10.D2→BALB/c model of sclerodermatous cGVHD, Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)–driven Notch signaling was essential for disease development. Antibody-mediated Dll4 inhibition conferred maximum benefits when pursued early in a preventative fashion, with anti-Dll1 enhancing early protection. Notch-deficient alloantigen-specific T cells showed no early defects in proliferation or helper polarization in vivo but subsequently exhibited markedly decreased cytokine secretion and enhanced accumulation of FoxP31 regulatory T cells. In the B6→B10.BR major histocompatibility complex–mismatched model with multi–organ system cGVHD and prominent bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), but not skin manifestations, absence of Notch signaling in T cells provided long-lasting disease protection that was replicated by systemic targeting of Dll1, Dll4, or both Notch ligands, even during established disease. Notch inhibition decreased target organ damage and germinal center formation. Moreover, decreased BO-cGVHD was observed upon inactivation of Notch1 and/or Notch2 in T cells. Systemic targeting of Notch2 alone was safe and conferred therapeutic benefits. Altogether, Notch ligands and receptors regulate key pathogenic steps in cGVHD and emerge as novel druggable targets to prevent or treat different forms of cGVHD. (Blood. 2018;132(20):2188-2200)
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© 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.