Aims/hypothesis: To validate the reported association between rs10494366 in NOS1AP (the gene encoding nitric oxide synthase-1 adaptor protein) and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in calcium channel blocker (CCB) users and to identify additional NOS1AP variants associated with type 2 diabetes risk. Methods: Data from 9 years of follow-up in 9,221 middle-aged white and 2,724 African-American adults free of diabetes at baseline from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study were analysed. Nineteen NOS1AP variants were examined for associations with incident diabetes and fasting glucose levels stratified by baseline CCB use. Results: Prevalence of CCB use at baseline was 2.7% (n = 247) in whites and 2.3% (n = 72) in African-Americans. Among white CCB users, the G allele of rs10494366 was associated with lower diabetes incidence (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.35-0.92, p = 0.016). The association was marginally significant after adjusting for age, sex, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, hypertension, heart rate and electrocardiographic QT interval (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.38-1.04, p = 0.052). rs10494366 was associated with lower average fasting glucose during follow-up (p = 0.037). No other variants were associated with diabetes risk in CCB users after multiple-testing correction. No associations were observed between any NOS1AP variant and diabetes development in non-CCB users. NOS1AP variants were not associated with diabetes risk in either African-American CCB users or non-CCB users. Conclusions/interpretation: We have independently replicated the association between rs10494366 in NOS1AP and incident diabetes among white CCB users. Further exploration of NOS1AP variants and type 2 diabetes and functional studies of NOS1AP in type 2 diabetes pathology is warranted.
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Acknowledgements The ARIC study is carried out as a collaborative study supported by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute contracts N01-HC-55015, N01-HC-55016, N01-HC-55018, N01-HC-55019, N01-HC-55020, N01-HC-55021 and N01-HC-55022. A. Y. Chu was supported by a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases training grant (T32-DK62707) and by a National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute training grant (T32-HL007024). Findings were previously published in abstract form at the 69th Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association, New Orleans, LA, USA, 5–9 June 2009. The authors thank the staff and participants of the ARIC study for their important contributions.
- ARIC study
- Calcium channel blockers
- Gene-drug interaction
- Type 2 diabetes