Noroviral diarrhea in solid organ transplant recipients: An analysis of interventions and outcomes

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Introduction: Noroviral infection can lead to chronic diarrhea in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with significant morbidity and mortality. Existing literature has described a wide spectrum of illness and has not come to a consensus on the optimal management of this condition. Methods: We undertook a retrospective review of all adult SOT recipients between 1/1/2018 and 12/31/2020 who were diagnosed with their first episode of noroviral diarrhea (NVD). Demographic, clinical interventions, and outcomes within 6 months of diagnosis were recorded. Patients’ outcomes were classified as either resolved, improved or persistent at 6 months. Results: Seventy-nine SOT recipients were included. Thirty-eight patients (48%) had chronic diarrhea at baseline (CDB). Thirty-two patients (40%) received nitazoxanide, 28 patients (35%) had their immunosuppression adjusted and seven patients (9%) received intravenous immunoglobulin. Diarrhea improved or resolved in 68 patients (85%). Improvement or resolution of diarrhea was observed in 98% of those who did not have history of chronic diarrhea versus 74% in those who did (p =.002). NVD improved in all 12 patients who had mycophenolate discontinued, although this was not statistically significant (p =.131). Conclusion: CDB was associated with worse outcomes regardless of intervention. A low threshold to test for NVD in SOT recipients with chronic diarrhea is prudent to prevent delayed diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere14855
JournalClinical Transplantation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Authors would like to thank Dr. Maribet McCarty for assistance with data collection.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Clinical Transplantation published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • diarrhea
  • immunoglobulins
  • immunosuppression therapy
  • intravenous
  • norovirus
  • organ transplantation

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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