Objective: To determine normative values for weight-bearing, countermovement leg extension (“jump”) tests in the oldest men and characteristics of those not completing vs. completing tests. Design: 2014-16 cross-sectional exam. Setting: Six U.S. sites from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study. Participants: Community-dwelling men (N=1,841) aged 84.5±4.2 (range: 77-101) years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: Jump tests on a force plate measured lower-extremity muscle peak power/kg, velocity and force/kg at peak power, with normative values for 5-year age groups and by limitations in moderate-intensity activities of daily living (ADLs) and climbing several flights of stairs. Results: Jump completion was 68.9% (N=1,268/1,841) and 98% (1,242/1,268) had >1 analyzable trial/participant. Exclusions primarily were due to poor mobility and/or balance: 24.8% (456/1,841) prior to and 6.4% (N=117/1,841) after attempting testing. Peak power was 20.8±5.3 W/kg, with 1.2±0.3 m/s for velocity, and 16.7±1.9 N/kg for force at peak power. Each 5-year age group >80 years had subsequently 10% lower power/kg, with 30% lower power/kg at >90 vs. <80 years (all p<0.05). Velocity and force/kg at peak power were 24% and 9% lower respectively, at >90 vs. <80 years (all p<0.05). Limitations in both moderate ADLs and climbing several flights of stairs were associated with 16% lower ageadjusted power/kg, equivalent to 5-10 years of aging, with 11% and 6% lower age-adjusted velocity and force/ kg respectively, vs. those without limitation (all p<0.05). Men not completing vs. completing jumps had older age, higher BMI, lower physical activity, more comorbidities, worse cognition, more IADLs/ADLs and more falls in the past year (all p<0.05). Post-jump pain occurred in 4.6% (58/1,268), with 2 participants stopping testing due to pain. Only 24/1,242 (2%) had all trials/participant without flight (i.e., inability to lift feet), with 323/1,242 having ≥1 trial/participant without flight (total of 28%). No serious adverse safety events (e.g., injury) occurred. Conclusions: A multicenter cohort of oldest men with a range of function had higher declines in jump power/kg and velocity vs. force/kg across each 5-year age group >80 years. Future research should examine ageand functional-related declines in jump measures related to physical performance decline, falls, fractures, and disability.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study is supported by National Institutes of Health funding. The following institutes provide support: the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research under the following grant numbers: U01 AG027810, U01 AG042124, U01 AG042139, U01 AG042140, U01 AG042143, U01 AG042145, U01 AG042168, U01 AR066160, and UL1 TR000128. Additional support was provided by the Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, NIH National Institute on Aging T32-AG000181 (Newman AB), Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics and the Center for Active and Healthy Ageing, University of Southern Denmark (Caserotti P), and in part, by NIH, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program (Harris TB).
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- Functional performance