Normative values for the oro-facial Esthetic Scale in Sweden

P. Larsson, M. T. John, K. Nilner, T. List

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


This study reports the findings and challenges of the assessment of oro-facial aesthetics in the Swedish general population and the development of normative values for the self-reporting Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES). In a Swedish national sample of 1406 adult subjects (response rate: 47%), OES decile norms were established. The influence of sociodemographics (gender, age, and education), oral health status and general health status on OES scores was analysed. Mean ± standard deviation of OES scores was 50·3 ± 15·6 units (0, worst score; 70, best score); <1% of the subjects had the minimum score of 0, and 11% had the maximum score of 70 OES units. Orofacial Esthetic Scale score differences were (i) substantial (>5 OES units) for subjects with excellent/very good versus good to poor oral or general health status; ii) small (2 units), but statistically significant for gender (P = 0·01) and two age groups (P = 0·02), and (iii) absent for subjects with college versus no college education (P = 0·31) or with and without dentures (P = 0·90). To estimate normative values for a self-reporting health status, instrument is considered an important step in standardisation, and the developed norms provide a frame of reference in the general population to interpret the Orofacial Esthetic Scale scores.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)148-154
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Oral Rehabilitation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2014


  • Aesthetics
  • Appearance
  • Normative values
  • Norms
  • Oral health
  • Oro-facial aesthetics


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