Normative comparisons in therapy outcome

Philip C. Kendall, William M. Grove

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

197 Scopus citations


Normative comparisons are a useful but stringent procedure for evaluating the value of therapeutic interventions. This procedure, consisting of comparing the behavior of treated subjects to that of nondisturbed subjects, is described, and its application to various commonly-used therapy outcome measures is discussed. Examples of the use of normative comparisons from the therapy outcome literature are provided. Statistical problems are considered, and suggested solutions to various potential pitfalls in normative comparisons are described. The need to provide evidence of treatment effectiveness convincing to lay skepticism, wherever possible, is underscored.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)147-158
Number of pages12
JournalBehavioral Assessment
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 1 1988


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