Normal canine excretory urogram: effects of dose, time, and individual dog variation.

D. A. Feeney, D. E. Thrall, D. L. Barber, D. H. Culver, R. E. Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Ten healthy, young, adult mongrel dogs were given sodium iothalamate at dose levels of 200, 400, and 800 mg of iodine/0.45 kg of body weight on separate occasions by rapid IV injection; urinary bladders of the dogs were empty before injections were begun. Seven of the ten dogs were given an additional dose of sodium iothalamate (400 mg of iodine/0.45 kg) with the bladder partially distended with sterilized saline solution. Ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs were obtained immediately and at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 120 minutes after injection of contrast medium. The kidneys, renal pelves, pelvic diverticula, and ureters were evaluated for radiographic density (radiopacity). The lengths and widths of the kidneys, pelves, and diverticula and the width of the ureters were determined, and those measurements were standardized by dividing the values by the corresponding length of the second lumbar vertebral body. From these evaluations, it was determined that postinjection radiographs should be obtained immediately and at 5, 20, and 40 minutes. The optimal dose of contrast medium was 400 mg of iodine/0.45 kg of body weight. It was also determined that the dose of contrast medium, as well as the time of postinjection radiography, significantly influenced many of the measurements (both linear and density) in the excretory urogram of normal dogs. Values for the measurements of the urinary structures based on the results of the present study are also presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1596-1604
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 1979


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