Nonuniqueness of equilibria in closed reacting systems

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While the equilibrium point in an ideal closed reacting system is unique and globally stable, it is shown herein that nonideal systems can have multiple equilibria and that more than one of these can be stable. The simplest kind of nonideality, exemplified by strictly regular solutions, can lead to large jumps in the equilibrium concentrations with only small parameter changes, in analogy to behavior known for open systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)993-1003
Number of pages11
JournalChemical Engineering Science
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1976


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