Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Ocular Infections: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Wajiha J. Kheir, Huda Sheheitli, Maamoun Abdul Fattah, Rola N. Hamam

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Nontuberculous or atypical mycobacterial ocular infections have been increasing in prevalence over the past few decades. They are known to cause periocular, adnexal, ocular surface and intraocular infections and are often recalcitrant to medical therapy. These infections can potentially cause detrimental outcomes, in part due to a delay in diagnosis. We review 174 case reports and series on nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) ocular infections and discuss etiology, microbiology, risk factors, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and treatment of these infections. History of interventions, trauma, foreign bodies, implants, contact lenses, and steroids are linked to NTM ocular infections. Steroid use may prolong the duration of the infection and cause poorer visual outcomes. Early diagnosis and initiation of treatment with multiple antibiotics are necessary to achieve the best visual outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number164989
JournalBioMed Research International
StatePublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Wajiha J. Kheir et al.


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