In this study, we investigate the possibility of nonlinearity in chorus waves during a geomagnetic storm on 1 November 2012. The data we use were measured by the Van Allen Probe B. Wave data and plasma sheet electron data are analyzed. Chorus waves were frequently measured in the morning side during the main phase of this storm. Large-amplitude chorus waves were seen of the order of 0.6 nT and >7 mV/m, which are similar to or larger than the typical ULF waves. The waves quite often consist of rising tones during the burst sampling. Since the rising tone is known as a signature of nonlinearity, a large portion of the waves are regarded as nonlinear at least during the burst sampling periods. These results underline the importance of nonlinearity in the dynamics of chorus waves. We further compare the measurement and the nonlinear theories, based on the inhomogeneity ratio, our own calculation derived from the field equation and the backward wave oscillator model. The wave quantities examined are frequency, amplitude, frequency drift rate, and duration. This type of study is useful to more deeply understand wave-particle interactions and hence may lead to predicting the generation and loss of radiation belt electrons in the future.
- chorus waves
- geomagnetic storm