Noninvasive electroanatomic mapping of human ventricular arrhythmias with electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI)

Yong Wang, Phillip S. Cuculich, Junjie Zhang, Kavit A. Desouza, Ramya Vijayakumar, Jane Chen, Mitchell N. Faddis, Bruce D. Lindsay, Timothy W. Smith, Yoram Rudy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

150 Scopus citations


The rapid heartbeat of ventricular tachycardia (VT) can lead to sudden cardiac death and is a major health issue worldwide. Efforts to identify patients at risk, determine mechanisms of VT, and effectively prevent and treat VT through a mechanism-based approach would all be facilitated by continuous, noninvasive imaging of the arrhythmia over the entire heart. Here, we present noninvasive real-time images of human ventricular arrhythmias using electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI). Our results reveal diverse activation patterns, mechanisms, and sites of initiation of human VT. The spatial resolution of ECGI is superior to that of the routinely used 12-lead electrocardiogram, which provides only global information, and ECGI has distinct advantages over the currently used method of mapping with invasive catheter-applied electrodes. The spatial resolution of this method and its ability to image electrical activation sequences over the entire ventricular surfaces in a single heartbeat allowed us to determine VT initiation sites and continuation pathways, as well as VT relationships to ventricular substrates, including anatomical scars and abnormal electrophysiological substrate. Thus, ECGI canmap the VT activation sequence and identify the location and depth of VT origin in individual patients, allowing personalized treatment of patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number98ra84
JournalScience Translational Medicine
Issue number98
StatePublished - Aug 31 2011


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