Nonhormone-Related Histologic Findings in Postsurgical Pathology Specimens From Transgender Persons

Archan Kakadekar, Dina N. Greene, Robert L. Schmidt, Mahmoud A. Khalifa, Alicia R. Andrews

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: The objective of this review is to characterize the literature addressing postprocedural complications in persons undergoing gender-affirming surgeries. Methods: A literature search using the OVID MEDLINE and PubMed databases was performed to identify all studies describing histologic findings in surgical pathology specimens from transgender persons from 1946 to April 2021. The studies describing postsurgical complications were categorized based on anatomic site, type of complication, study design, publication region, and date. Results: Thirty-nine studies describing postsurgical complications in transgender women were identified. The most common sites of postprocedural pathology included the breasts and neovagina, with additional studies including buttocks and thighs, cutaneous sites, and the pulmonary system. Most of the literature comprised case reports, followed by case series and comparative studies. The search did not identify any studies of complications secondary to masculinizing surgeries. Conclusions: This body of literature is small but growing. Most studies are case reports. There are significant gaps in the literature. The literature in this area is not yet mature enough to support a meta-analysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)337-344
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican journal of clinical pathology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Society for Clinical Pathology.


  • Histologic features
  • Postsurgical complications
  • Postsurgical histology
  • Surgical pathology
  • Transgender women

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review


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