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Diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID), was the cause of the rapid vulture population decline in the Indian subcontinent in the 1990s. Since 2013, diclofenac has been approved for veterinary use in Spain. The Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) hosts more than 95% of the Old World vulture population in Europe, so this situation poses a significant potential threat for European vultures. Other NSAIDs may also pose a risk to vultures, but a thorough review of available evidence has not been conducted. We conducted a scoping review to analyze the published research on the impact of NSAIDs to Old World vultures to ultimately use the synthesized information to inform risk assessments. We implemented a search strategy of four bibliographic databases (1990-2019). Publications were screened in two steps, and two reviewers independently extracted data relevant to the phases of a risk assessment (release, exposure, and consequences). Among the 78 studies included in the review, 41% focused on India, 21.8% studied the White-rumped Vulture (Gyps bengalensis), 38.5% evaluated diclofenac, and 12.8% meloxicam. There was substantial evidence that diclofenac can lead to mortality in Old World vultures. There was also some evidence of mortality and clinical signs caused by carprofen, ketoprofen, and flunixin meglumine. Mild clinical signs were reported for phenylbutazone, and nimesulide, and no consequences were reported for meloxicam. However, the effects of all these other NSAIDs to vultures need further research.
|Translated title of the contribution||Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and their effect on old world vultures: A scoping review|
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Journal of Raptor Research|
|State||Published - Sep 1 2021|
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