Several yeast species, belonging to Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces genera, play fundamental roles during spontaneous must grape fermentation, and recent studies have shown that mixed fermentations, co-inoculated with S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces strains, can improve wine organoleptic properties. During active dry yeast (ADY) production, antioxidant systems play an essential role in yeast survival and vitality as both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress and negatively affect technological performance. Mechanisms for adaptation and resistance to desiccation have been described for S. cerevisiae, but no data are available on the physiology and oxidative stress response of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts and their potential impact on ADY production. In this study we analyzed the oxidative stress response in several non-Saccharomyces yeast species by measuring the activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes, e.g., catalase and glutathione reductase, accumulation of protective metabolites, e.g., trehalose and reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid and protein oxidation levels. Our data suggest that non-canonical regulation of glutathione and trehalose biosynthesis could cause poor fermentative performance after ADY production, as it corroborates the corrective effect of antioxidant treatments, during biomass propagation, with both pure chemicals and food-grade argan oil.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We are grateful to Lallemand Inc. for providing the T. del-brueckii strain from its collection. This work has been supported by grants AGL2011-24353 and AGL2014-AGL2014-52984-R from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) to E.M, and it was performed as part of the Programme VLC/Campus, Microcluster IViSoCa (Innovation for a Sustainable Viticulture and Quality), and Microcluster BBLM (Model Yeasts in Biomedicine & Biotechnology). E.G-S. was a predoctoral fellow of the JAE program and R.G-P. was a predoctoral fellow of the I3P program, both from the CSIC (Spanish National Research Council). Professional English edition has been done by Helen L Warburton (firstname.lastname@example.org).
- Active dry wine yeasts
- Antioxidant defense
- Food-grade argan oil
- Non-Saccharomyces yeasts
- Oxidative damage