No Association Found Between Midlife Seropositivity for Infection and Subsequent Cognitive Decline: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study (ARIC-NCS)

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Abstract

Infections of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Helicobacter pylori, and Chlamydia pneumoniae may play a role in cognitive decline via systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants who were seropositive in midlife for antibodies to HSV-1, CMV, H pylori, or C pneumoniae would have an accelerated rate of cognitive decline over 20 years. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities performed a case-cohort study involving a stratified random sample of participants tested for serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to the pathogens of interest. We conducted a longitudinal study using this cohort. Cognitive change was measured using Z scores from the Delayed Word Recall (DWR), Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and Word Fluency (WF) Tests administered at visits 2 (1990-1992), 4 (1996-1998), and 5 (2011-2013). Linear regression models with generalized estimating equations and inverse probability of attrition weights were used to evaluate associations between infection and cognitive performance. Four hundred twenty-six participants were analyzed, of which 3% were seronegative for all 4 infections, 14% seropositive for one, 33% and 34% seropositive for 2 and 3, respectively, and 16% seropositive for all infections. At baseline, test scores were significantly lower for participants seropositive for H pylori and C pneumoniae. After baseline covariate adjustment, the rate of decline in DWR, DSS, WF, and global Z scores did not differ significantly by infection status for any of the 4 infections. There was also no significant association between the number of infections for which participants were seropositive and cognitive decline. Our study provides no evidence supporting a longitudinal relationship between seropositivity and cognitive decline.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)15-21
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Volume33
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

Fingerprint

Atherosclerosis
Infection
Pylorus
Human Herpesvirus 1
Cytomegalovirus
Linear Models
Pneumonia
Social Adjustment
Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Antibodies
Cognitive Dysfunction
Helicobacter pylori
Longitudinal Studies
Cohort Studies
Immunoglobulin G
Inflammation
Weights and Measures
Serum

Keywords

  • cognitive decline
  • cohort study
  • infection

Cite this

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title = "No Association Found Between Midlife Seropositivity for Infection and Subsequent Cognitive Decline: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study (ARIC-NCS)",
abstract = "Infections of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Helicobacter pylori, and Chlamydia pneumoniae may play a role in cognitive decline via systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants who were seropositive in midlife for antibodies to HSV-1, CMV, H pylori, or C pneumoniae would have an accelerated rate of cognitive decline over 20 years. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities performed a case-cohort study involving a stratified random sample of participants tested for serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to the pathogens of interest. We conducted a longitudinal study using this cohort. Cognitive change was measured using Z scores from the Delayed Word Recall (DWR), Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and Word Fluency (WF) Tests administered at visits 2 (1990-1992), 4 (1996-1998), and 5 (2011-2013). Linear regression models with generalized estimating equations and inverse probability of attrition weights were used to evaluate associations between infection and cognitive performance. Four hundred twenty-six participants were analyzed, of which 3{\%} were seronegative for all 4 infections, 14{\%} seropositive for one, 33{\%} and 34{\%} seropositive for 2 and 3, respectively, and 16{\%} seropositive for all infections. At baseline, test scores were significantly lower for participants seropositive for H pylori and C pneumoniae. After baseline covariate adjustment, the rate of decline in DWR, DSS, WF, and global Z scores did not differ significantly by infection status for any of the 4 infections. There was also no significant association between the number of infections for which participants were seropositive and cognitive decline. Our study provides no evidence supporting a longitudinal relationship between seropositivity and cognitive decline.",
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author = "George, {Kristen M.} and Folsom, {Aaron R.} and Norby, {Faye L.} and Lutsey, {Pamela L.}",
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N2 - Infections of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Helicobacter pylori, and Chlamydia pneumoniae may play a role in cognitive decline via systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants who were seropositive in midlife for antibodies to HSV-1, CMV, H pylori, or C pneumoniae would have an accelerated rate of cognitive decline over 20 years. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities performed a case-cohort study involving a stratified random sample of participants tested for serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to the pathogens of interest. We conducted a longitudinal study using this cohort. Cognitive change was measured using Z scores from the Delayed Word Recall (DWR), Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and Word Fluency (WF) Tests administered at visits 2 (1990-1992), 4 (1996-1998), and 5 (2011-2013). Linear regression models with generalized estimating equations and inverse probability of attrition weights were used to evaluate associations between infection and cognitive performance. Four hundred twenty-six participants were analyzed, of which 3% were seronegative for all 4 infections, 14% seropositive for one, 33% and 34% seropositive for 2 and 3, respectively, and 16% seropositive for all infections. At baseline, test scores were significantly lower for participants seropositive for H pylori and C pneumoniae. After baseline covariate adjustment, the rate of decline in DWR, DSS, WF, and global Z scores did not differ significantly by infection status for any of the 4 infections. There was also no significant association between the number of infections for which participants were seropositive and cognitive decline. Our study provides no evidence supporting a longitudinal relationship between seropositivity and cognitive decline.

AB - Infections of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Helicobacter pylori, and Chlamydia pneumoniae may play a role in cognitive decline via systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants who were seropositive in midlife for antibodies to HSV-1, CMV, H pylori, or C pneumoniae would have an accelerated rate of cognitive decline over 20 years. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities performed a case-cohort study involving a stratified random sample of participants tested for serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to the pathogens of interest. We conducted a longitudinal study using this cohort. Cognitive change was measured using Z scores from the Delayed Word Recall (DWR), Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and Word Fluency (WF) Tests administered at visits 2 (1990-1992), 4 (1996-1998), and 5 (2011-2013). Linear regression models with generalized estimating equations and inverse probability of attrition weights were used to evaluate associations between infection and cognitive performance. Four hundred twenty-six participants were analyzed, of which 3% were seronegative for all 4 infections, 14% seropositive for one, 33% and 34% seropositive for 2 and 3, respectively, and 16% seropositive for all infections. At baseline, test scores were significantly lower for participants seropositive for H pylori and C pneumoniae. After baseline covariate adjustment, the rate of decline in DWR, DSS, WF, and global Z scores did not differ significantly by infection status for any of the 4 infections. There was also no significant association between the number of infections for which participants were seropositive and cognitive decline. Our study provides no evidence supporting a longitudinal relationship between seropositivity and cognitive decline.

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