Nitrogen circulation through the global environment has been growing dramatically. This chapter discusses the nitrogen effects on costal marine ecosystems. a rapidly growing human population increased the global circulation of nitrogen. Nitrogen inputs to coastal waters come from the land, from the sea, and from the air; because of these multiple sources and the complexity of the nitrogen cycle, confident estimates of total nitrogen loading to coastal systems are not routine. There is a great diversity in coastal systems and vulnerability to increased nitrogen loading varies greatly. This chapter illustrates that the increasing nitrogen inputs to the coastal zone have been confirmed in more places; symptoms of over-enrichment continue to be reported worldwide and apparently are growing. Fundamental similarities between coastal over-enrichment and lake eutrophication are broadly recognized, although finer details are still debated.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Nitrogen in the Environment|
|Number of pages||62|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2008|