New pulse sequences for T1- and T1/T2-contrast enhancing in NMR imaging

N. K. Andreev, A. M. Hakimov, D. Sh Idiyatullin

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Improved pulse sequences DIFN (abbreviation of the words: DIFferentiation by N pulses), 90°- τ1 - 180°- τ1 - ... 180°- τ(n), with optimised time intervals τ1 for T1 measurement and contrast enhancing in NMR imaging are presented. The pulse sequences DIFN have a better sensitivity to T1 than the well-known pulse sequence SR. In contrast to the IR pulse sequence, the information given by the DIFN pulse sequence is more reliable, because the NMR signal does not change its sign. For a given time interval τ0 ≤ (0.1-0.3) T1' the DIFN pulse sequences serve as T1- filters. They pass the signal components with relatively short T1 < T1' and suppress the components with relatively long T1 < T1'. The effects of the radiofrequency field inhomogeneity and inaccurate adjusting of pulse lengths are also considered. It is also proposed in this work to use the joint T1- T2-contrast in NMR imaging obtained as a result of applying the DIFN pulse sequences in combination with the well-known Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence. The region of interest, where the contrast should be especially enhanced, is specified by the two times at which measurements are performed, which allow the amplitudes of pixels to reach some defined levels by spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)981-987
Number of pages7
JournalMagnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 12 1998


  • Contrast enhancing
  • Pulse sequences
  • Spin-lattice relaxation time T
  • Spin-spin relaxation time T

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