This study investigates how firms manufacturing medical devices use the new product development (NPD) process. It compares new-to-the world products with product modifications in terms of the perceived importance of 12 NPD stages by R&D, manufacturing, and marketing departments; NPD stages actually performed; and the relation of these activities to new product success. Although significant variations occur among the use of specific NPD stages, the firms use the NPD stages more often for new-to-the world products than for product modifications, and "high-success products" utilize the NPD stages more often than "low-success products." Respondent perceptions of NPD stage importance are consistent with whether a particular stage is undertaken. Marketing stages generally seem less important than other stages and are less frequently undertaken. Managers interested in developing successful new-to-the-world products may want to use a more "complete" new product process. On the other hand, successful product modifications may be able to take some short cuts in the new product process without jeopardizing new product success.