In general, the methodology of magnetic resonance applied in brain research can be divided into two categories: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS). MRI provides rich contrast which is useful for studying brain anatomy, function, behavior and disease. The great merit of in vivo MRS is its ability for noninvasively measuring a variety of cerebral metabolites and neurotransmitters inside a brain. It, therefore, provides an invaluable tool for determining metabolites, chemical reaction rates and bioenergetics, as well as their changes in the human and animal brains. The capability of in vivo MRS is further enhanced at high/ultrahigh magnetic fields because of significant improvements in the detection sensitivity and spectral resolution. Recent progress in technology development has further demonstrated the great potential and promise of in vivo MRS, particularly, in brain research. This article provides a brief review of in vivo MRS methodologies and their applications for determining the cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen, glucose and ATP noninvasively.
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Acknowledgement We thank the support and technical assistance from Drs. Yi Zhang, Peter Andersen and Gregor Adriany. This work was supported in part by NIH grants of NS41262, EB00329, EB00513, P41 RR08079 and P30NS057091; the Keck foundation and the MIND institute.
- ATP production
- Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
- Brain activation
- Brain function
- Brain metabolism
- Cerebral metabolic rate of ATP (CMR)
- Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO)
- In vivoO MRS
- In vivoP MRS
- Oxidative phosphorylation