Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen capable of causing various diseases, from skin infections to life-threatening pneumonia and toxic shock syndrome. S. aureus exoproteins, including superantigens, contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of this organism. Antibiotics inhibit growth, but often provide no protection from S. aureus exoproteins. With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus, new therapeutic options to treat or prevent S. aureus-associated diseases are critical. Most S. aureus infections begin on the skin or mucosal surfaces from direct inflammatory or cytotoxic effects of exotoxins. Therefore, antitoxin therapies that prevent toxin production and prevent their effects on host cells are being researched. Current treatments for staphylococcal diseases and recent developments in antitoxin therapeutic agents and vaccines are reviewed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Marnie Peterson’s research is supported by grants from NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (RO1AI073366), Powell Center for Women’s Health and University of Minnesota Academic Heath Center Office of the Vice President, and 3M. The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript apart from those disclosed.
- Staphylococcus aureus
- antimicrobial resistance
- necrotizing pneumonia
- skin and soft-tissue infection
- toxic shock syndrome