The adaptive immune function of lymph nodes is dependent on constant recirculation of lymphocytes. In this article, we identify neutrophils present in the lymph node at steady state, exhibiting the same capacity for recirculation. In germ-free mice, neutrophils still recirculate through lymph nodes, and in mice cohoused with wild microbiome mice, the level of neutrophils in lymph nodes increases significantly. We found that at steady state, neutrophils enter the lymph node entirely via L-selectin and actively exit via efferent lymphatics via an S1P dependent mechanism. The small population of neutrophils in the lymph node can act as reconnaissance cells to recruit additional neutrophils in the event of bacterial dissemination to the lymph node. Without these reconnaissance cells, there is a delay in neutrophil recruitment to the lymph node and a reduction in swarm formation following Staphylococcus aureus infection. This ability to recruit additional neutrophils by lymph node neutrophils is initiated by LTB4. This study establishes the capacity of neutrophils to recirculate, much like lymphocytes via L-selectin and high endothelial venules in lymph nodes and demonstrates how the presence of neutrophils at steady state fortifies the lymph node in case of an infection disseminating through lymphatics.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The P.K. laboratory is supported by a Foundation Grant from the Canadian Institute of Health Research (FDN-143248). A.B. is funded by the Isaac Walter Killam Graduate Scholarship and the Beverly Philips Rising Star Program.
© 2020 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.