This self-directed learning module provides an updated tool for establishing the differential diagnosis and subsequently designing a cost- effective workup for patients with peripheral neuropathy. It is part of the chapter on neuromuscular rehabilitation and electrodiagnosis in the Self- Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Medication intervention for neuropathic pain is reviewed by medication class with recommendations for starting doses and review of side-effect profiles. This article also reviews the current treatment standards for a patient with juvenile-onset diabetes, including recommendations for glucose control, management of nephropathy and retinopathy, and care of foot complications. (C) 2000 by the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.