Neurocognitive and somatic stabilization in pediatric patients with severe Mucopolysaccharidosis Type i after 52 weeks of intravenous brain-penetrating insulin receptor antibody-iduronidase fusion protein (valanafusp alpha): An open label phase 1-2 trial

Roberto Giugliani, Luciana Giugliani, Fabiano De Oliveira Poswar, Karina Carvalho Donis, Amauri Dalla Corte, Mathias Schmidt, Ruben J. Boado, Igor Nestrasil, Carol Nguyen, Steven Chen, William M. Pardridge

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38 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) Type I (MPSI) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme, α-L-iduronidase (IDUA), and a majority of patients present with severe neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Recombinant IDUA does not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To enable BBB transport, IDUA was re-engineered as an IgG-IDUA fusion protein, valanafusp alpha, where the IgG domain targets the BBB human insulin receptor to enable transport of the enzyme into the brain. We report the results of a 52-week clinical trial on the safety and efficacy of valanafusp alpha in pediatric MPSI patients with cognitive impairment. In the phase I trial, 6 adults with attenuated MPSI were administered 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg doses of valanafusp alpha by intravenous (IV) infusion. In the phase II trial, 11 pediatric subjects, 2-15 years of age, were treated for 52 weeks with weekly IV infusions of valanafusp alpha at 1, 3, or 6 mg/kg. Assessments of adverse events, cognitive stabilization, and somatic stabilization were made. Outcomes at 52 weeks were compared to baseline. Results: Drug related adverse events included infusion related reactions, with an incidence of 1.7%, and transient hypoglycemia, with an incidence of 6.4%. The pediatric subjects had CNS involvement with a mean enrollment Development Quotient (DQ) of 36.1±7.1. The DQ, and the cortical grey matter volume of brain, were stabilized by valanafusp alpha treatment. Somatic manifestations were stabilized, or improved, based on urinary glycosaminoglycan levels, hepatic and spleen volumes, and shoulder range of motion. Conclusion: Clinical evidence of the cognitive and somatic stabilization indicates that valanafusp alpha is transported into both the CNS and into peripheral organs due to its dual targeting mechanism via the insulin receptor and the mannose 6-phosphate receptor. This novel fusion protein offers a pharmacologic approach to the stabilization of cognitive function in MPSI. Trial registration: Clinical Trials.Gov, NCT03053089. Retrospectively registered 9 February, 2017; Clinical Trials.Gov, NCT03071341. Registered 6 March, 2017.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110
JournalOrphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 5 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Supported by ArmaGen, Inc.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Author(s).

Keywords

  • Blood-brain barrier
  • Efficacy
  • Iduronidase
  • Insulin receptor
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I
  • Open label clinical trial
  • Safety

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