Objective: Studies of healthy individuals and those with cerebellar damage have implicated the cerebellum in a variety of cognitive and behavioral processes. Decreased cerebellar volume has been found in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and differentially related to behavioral outcomes. The present study investigated whether smaller cerebellar vermis volume was present in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) compared with controls and whether volume related to parent- and teacher-reported levels of ADHD symptomatology. Method: T1-weighted magnetic resonance images and parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms were acquired for 32 children diagnosed with ADHD-C and 15 typically developing controls. Participants were right-handed, had no comorbid diagnoses of learning disabilities, conduct disorder, or affective/mood disorder, and were 9 to 15 years of age. Results: Participants with ADHD-C showed significantly smaller volume in the posterior inferior vermis compared with controls. No statistically significant differences were observed for cerebral volume, anterior vermis volume, posterior superior volume, or total cerebellar volume. Regression analyses indicated that a significant amount of the variance in parent-reported Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Hyperactivity and Attention and Conners Restless/Impulsive ratings was explained by volume of the posterior inferior vermis. Conclusions: Consistent with previous studies, children with ADHD had smaller volume in the posterior inferior vermis. New findings emerged with smaller volume of the posterior inferior vermis predicting a significant amount of the variance in parent-reported hyperactivity, attention, and restlessness/impulsivity. Thus, symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention in ADHD may be partly explained by smaller volume of the cerebellar vermis and its connections within the cerebrum.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry|
|State||Published - Jun 2011|
- attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder